Sulla made him a present of land at Beneventum, and secured him against punishment for embezzlement.
In 74, by a lavish use of bribes, Verres secured the city praetorship, and, as a creature of Sulla, abused his authority to further the political ends of his party.
But Sulla in Greece and Fimbria in Asia defeated his armies in several battles; the Greek cities were disgusted by his severity, and in 84 he concluded peace, abandoning all his conquests, surrendering his fleet and paying a fine of 2000 talents.
For eighteen years he showed himself no unworthy adversary of Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey.
Bocchus again made overtures to the Romans, and after an interview with Sulla, who was Marius's quaestor at that time, sent ambassadors to Rome.
After further negotiations with Sulla, he finally agreed to send a message to Jugurtha requesting his presence.
Further to conciliate the Romans and especially Sulla,he sent to the Capitol a group of Victories guarding a device in gold showing Bocchus handing over Jugurtha to Sulla.
See Jugurtha; also Sallust, Jugurtha, 80-120; Plutarch, Marius, 8-32, Sulla, 3; A.
In 84 Sulla removed Apellicon's library to Rome (Strabo xiii.
P. 609; Plutarch, Sulla, 26).
The temporary includes vetches, pulse, lupine, clover and trifolium; and the perennial, meadow-trefoil, lupinella, sulla (fledysarum coronarium), lucerne and darnel.
Claudius Quadrigarius (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later.
The autobiography of Sulla may also be mentioned.
Other works which may be mentioned are Zeitgenossen, Biografien and Charakteristiken (Berlin, 1862); Bibliografia del lavori pubblicati in Germania sulla storia d'Italia (Berlin, 1863); Biographische Denkblatter nach personlichen Erinnerungen (Leipzig, 1878); and Saggi di storia e letteratura (Florence, 1880).
LUCIUS CORNELIUS SULLA (138-78 B.C.), surnamed Felix, Roman general, politician and dictator, belonged to a minor and impoverished branch of the famous patrician Cornelian gens.
In these African campaigns Sulla showed that he knew how to win the confidence of his soldiers, and throughout his career the secret of his success seems to have been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, whom he continued to hold well in hand, while allowing them to indulge in plundering and all kinds of excess.
When the war was over, Sulla, on his return to Rome, lived quietly for some years and took no part in politics.
Sulla with a small army soon won a victory over the general of Mithradates, and Rome's client-king was restored.
An embassy from the Parthians now came to solicit alliance with Rome, and Sulla was the first Roman who held diplomatic intercourse with that remote people.
In the year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping political change, with the enfranchisement of the Italian peoples, Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally felt that he was the man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party.
The services of both Marius and Sulla were given; but Sulla was the more successful, or, at any rate, the more fortunate.
The senate had already chosen Sulla; but the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus moved that Marius should have the command.
Rioting took place at Rome at the prompting of the popular leaders, Sulla narrowly escaping to his legions in Campania, whence he marched on Rome, being the first Roman who entered the city at the head of a Roman army.
Sulla, leaving things quiet at Rome, quitted Italy in 87, and for the next four years he was winning victory after victory against the armies of Mithradates and accumulating boundless plunder.
Sulla returned to Italy in 83, landing at Brundisium, having previously informed the senate of the result of his campaigns in Greece and Asia, and announced his presence on Italian ground.
They felt they must resist him to the death, and with the troops scattered throughout Italy, and the newly enfranchised Italians, to whom it was understood that Sulla was bitterly hostile, they counted confidently on success.
Caecilius Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, joined Sulla, and in the following year (82) he won a decisive victory over the younger Marius near Praeneste (mod.
Rome was at the same time in extreme peril from the advance of a Samnite army, and was barely saved by Sulla, who, after a hardfought battle, routed the enemy under Pontius Telesinus at the Colline gate of Rome.
With the death of the younger Marius, who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the civil war was at an end, and Sulla was master of Rome and of the Roman world.
The title of "dictator" was revived and Sulla was in fact emperor of Rome.
In 79 Sulla resigned his dictatorship and retired to Puteoli (mod.
The ancient authorities for Sulla and his time are his Life by Plutarch (who made use of the Memoirs); Appian, Bell.
Lau, Lucius Cornelius Sulla (1855); E.
Gerlach, Marius and Sulla (1856); J.
Sunden, "De tribunicia potestate a Lucio Sulla imminuta" in Skrifter utgifna of k.
Humanistika Vetenskapssamfundet i Upsala, v., 1897, in which it is argued against Mommsen that Sulla did not deprive the tribunes of the right of proposing rogations.
His nephew (as some say, though the degree of relationship cannot be clearly established), Publics Cornelius Sulla was consul in 66 B.C. with P. Autronius Paetus.
There is little doubt that Sulla also was implicated; Sallust does not mention it, but other authorities definitely assert his guilt.
Sulla was defended by Cicero and Hortensius, and acquitted.
There is no doubt that, after his first conviction, Sulla remained very quiet, and, whatever his sympathies may have been, took no active part in the conspiracy.
When the civil war broke out, Sulla took the side of Caesar, and commanded the right wing at the battle of Pharsalus.
He died 45 See Cicero, Pro Sulla, passim (ed.
Among his works may be mentioned Studii sulla coscienza; Il Fenomeno nelle sue relazioni con la sensazione; Della idea del vero; Della filosofia del diritto presso Aristotile (1885); Il Genio di Aristotile; La Psicologia di Pietro Pomponazzi (1877), and, most important, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX' siecle (Paris, 1869), and La Psychologie de l'association depuis Hobbes jusqu'd nos jours.
His Prolusioni alla Storia della Filosofia and Lezioni sulla Filosofia della Storia were connected with his professorial work, which was specially devoted to the history of philosophy and the philosophy of history.
Aemilius Scaurus (stepson of Sulla) who had been sent into Syria by Pompey (65 B.C.).
The emergency office of the early and middle Republic has few points of contact, except those of the extraordinary position and almost unfettered authority of its holder, with the dictatorship as revised by Sulla and by Caesar.
He sided with Sulla in the civil war, was included in the proscription list of 87, and when Marius declined to pardon him, committed suicide.
See Plutarch, Marius, Sulla; Appian, B.
In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who after the death of Sulla proposed the overthrow of his constitution, the re-establishment of the distribution of grain, the recall of the banished, and other democratic measures.
Of the two Italian botanists who in comparatively recent years have monographed the group, Parlatore (Le Specie dei cotoni, 1866) recognizes seven species, whilst Todaro (Relazione sulla culta dei cotoni, 18 7718 78) describes over fifty species: many of these, however, are of but little economic importance, and, in spite of the difficulties mentioned above, it i s possible for practical purposes to divide the commercially important plants into five species, placing these in two groups according to the character of the hairs borne on the seeds.
The capture and sack of Athens by Sulla (March 1, 86 B.e.) seems to have involved no great injury to its architectural monuments beyond the burning of the Odeum of mom,.
The town with its port stood a long siege against Sulla, but was stormed in 86.
A special article, the object of which was to pacify those who had received grants of land from Sulla, declared such possessions to be private property, for which compensation was to be paid in case of surrender.
In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.
Whatever punishment Sulla may have inflicted, Nola, though it lost much of its importance, remained a municipium with its own institutions and the use of the Oscan language.
Her temple, which was pillaged by Sulla, contained an ivory image, which was said to have fallen from heaven.
It is probable that certain privileges of the equites were due to Gracchus; that of wearing the gold ring, hitherto reserved for senators; that of special seats in the theatre, subsequently withdrawn (probably by Sulla) and restored by the lex Othonis (67 B.C.); the narrow band of purple on the tunic as distinguished from the broad band worn by the senators.
After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
Sulla sent for him and had him strangled in his presence; in his excitement he broke a blood-vessel and died on the following day.