The members of both chambers owe their election to universal suffrage; but the Senate is not elected directly by the people and the Chamber of Deputies is.
Convicts not pardoned with an explicit restoration of suffrage privileges are disfranchised - a rare clause in the United States.
Suffrage was by this constitution first extended to women tax-payers in questions " submitted to the tax-payers, as such."
The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.
The deputies are elected by direct suffrage for the legislative session of three years, and have the same immunities from legal process as the senators.
A constitution of 1868 gave suffrage to the blacks, and disfranchised all whites made ineligible to office under the proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national Constitution, and also (practically) those who had by word, pen or vote defended secession.
This council, which consists for the most part of business and professional men, is elected by universal suffrage, each canton in the department contributing one member.
The councils general are elected by universal suffrage of all citizens and those who, though not citizens, have been granted the political franchise.
The constitutional qualifications for suffrage are: the age of twenty-one years, citizenship in the United States or presentation of naturalization certificates at registration centres, residence in the state one year and in the county six months, and registration.
Washington in his will provided for the emancipation of his own his first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in his country might be abolished by law," and again he wrote that to this subject his own suffrage should never be wanting.
The right of voting being confined to members of the Communist party, the Government represented by no means one really elected by universal suffrage but rather a dictatorship of the lower classes.
Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.
Taylor, Miss Emily Davies and others, of the first women's suffrage society, which developed into the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, and his writings are still the most important theoretical statement of the case for women's suffrage.
Central Government.The principles upon which the French constitution is based are representative government (by two chambers), manhood suffrage, responsibility of ministers and irresponsibility of the head of the state.
The allegations made con cerning the Chinese really amounted to a charge of undue 1 Australia, it may be noted, has woman's suffrage in all the states (Victoria, the last, adopting it in November 1908), and for the federal assembly.
The result was the formation of an assembly at Modena which abolished feudal dues and customs, declared for manhood suffrage and established the Cispadane Republic (October 1796).
Besides the realization of the formal programme of the Left, consisting of the repeal of the grist tax, the abolition of the forced currency, the extension of the suffrage and the development of the railway system Depretis laid the foundation for land tax re-assessment by introducing a new cadastral survey.
When, in course of time, the extended suffrage increased the Republican and Extreme Radical elements in the Chamber, and the Liberal Pentarchy (composed of Crispi, Cairoli, Nicotera, Zanardelli and Baccarini) assumed an attitude of bitter hostility to Depretis, the Right, obeying the impulse of Minghetti, rallied openly to Depretis, lending him aid without which his prolonged term of office would have been impossible.
In addition to the ordinary suffrage qualifications of age, sex, and residence, the voter must have paid all taxes due from him for the two years immediately preceding the election, and he must be able to read any section of the constitution or "be able to understand the same when read to him, or give a reasonable interpretation thereof."
Sagasta remained in office until 1890, long enough to carry out all his reform programme, including universal suffrage and the establishment of trial by jury.
Universal suffrage had already been adopted in the Cis-leithan half of the monarchy; it was an obvious policy to propose it for Hungary also, and thus, by an appeal to the non-Magyar Kristoffy's majority, to reduce the irreconcilable Magyar minority Universal to reason.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
On a referendum in 1895 on the expediency of granting municipal suffrage to women only 59.08% of the women who were registered voted, and probably less than 10% of those entitled to be registered.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
All male citizens above twenty-one years of age have the right of suffrage, subject to a residence of one year in the state and sixty days in the county in which they offer to vote.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
Though the Virginia constitution of 1850 provided for white manhood suffrage, yet the distribution of representation among the counties was such as to give control to the section east of the Blue Ridge Mountains.