At the head of the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the archbishops of Scutari (with three suffragans), Prizren and Durazzo; the mitred abbot of St Alexander is the spiritual chief of the Mirdites.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
In the 13th centur y Archbishop Peckham, says Maitland (p. 117), as archbishop "asserted for himself and his official (1) a general right to entertain in the first instance complaints made against his suffragans' subjects, and (2) a general right to hear appeals omisso medio."
An exception should be made in the case of Georgia, which is governed by an "exarch," with three suffragans under him.
The episcopate now consists of an archbishop and three suffragans (Hackett, Orthodox Church in Cyprus, 1901, ch.
The final court is the island synod, which consists of the archbishop, his suffragans and four dignified priests.
Since there is no example of the archbishop of York exercising or being reputed to have such disciplinary jurisdiction over his suffragans,' and this right could, according to the canon law cited above, in the middle ages only be exercised normally in concert with the provincial synod, it would seem to be a survival of the special jurisdiction enjoyed by the pre-Reformation archbishop as legatus natus of the pope.
Ecclesiastically, Tirol is ruled by the archbishop of Salzburg and his two suffragans, the bishops of Trent and of Brixen.
There are six dioceses (two archbishops, one of Edinburgh and St Andrews and the other of Glasgow; and four suffragans, Aberdeen, Argyll and the Isles, Dunkeld and Galloway), with, in 1909, 550 priests; 398 churches, chapels and stations; and a Roman Catholic population estimated at about 519,000.
The suffragans of Canterbury claimed a share in choosing the new primate, although that right had been exclusively reserved to the monks of Canterbury by a papal privilege; and John supported the bishops since they were prepared to give their votes for his candidate, John de Gray, bishop of Norwich.
Until 1324, when with all his suffragans he opposed the king in defence of the bishop of Hereford, Adam of Orlton.
Bishops are addressed as "Right Reverend" and have legally the style of "Lord," which, as in the case of Roman Catholic bishops in England, is extended to all, whether suffragans or holders of colonial bishoprics, by courtesy.
The suffragan is given a title in partibus, but never that of archbishop, and the same title is never given to two suffragans in succession.
Under this statute, which, after long remaining inoperative, was amended and again put into force by the Suffragans' Nomination Act of 1888, every archbishop and bishop, being disposed to have a suffragan to assist him, may name two honest and discreet spiritual persons for the crown to give to one of them the title, name, style and dignity of a bishop of any one of twenty-six sees enumerated in the statute, as the crown may think convenient.
Three more suffragans were sent out in 1312, of whom one at least reached East Asia.
He began his new rule by a vigorous attempt to assert his rights, warned the citizens of London not to withhold tithes, and decided appeals from the judgments of his suffragans during a thorough visitation of his province.
In alnd Christian O'Conarchy, bishop of Lismore and papal legate, presided, and the archbishops of Dublin, Cashel and Tuam attended with their suffragans, as did many abbots and other dignitaries.
The primate of Armagh, the saintly Gelasius, was absent, and presumably his suffragans also, but Giraldus says he afterwards came to the king at Dublin, and favoured him in all things.
Hence arose incessant complaints on the part of the dispossessed bishops, of the metropolitan of Tours, and his suffragans, notably those of Angers and Le Mans, which were more exposed than the others to the incursions of the Bretons; and this gave rise to numerous papal letters, and all this throughout a period of thirty years.
A Latin hierarchy was set up in 1196 (an archbishop at Nicosia with suffragans at Limasol, Paphos and Famagusta), and the Greek bishops were made to minister to their flocks in subjection to it.