The serf, the Sudra, was not to worship the gods of the Aryan freemen.
The ancient designation Sudra finds no great favour in modern times, and we can point to no group that is generally recognized as representing it.
The generic name applied to the latter was Sudra, originally probably the name of one of the subjected tribes.
But though the Brahmans, too, will often acquiesce in the reasonableness of such claims, it is probably only as a matter of policy that they do so, whilst in reality they regard the other two higher castes as having long since disappeared and been merged by miscegenation in the Sudra mass.
At the same time, in judging the apparently inhuman way in which the Sudras were treated in the caste rules, one has always to bear in mind the fact that the belief in metempsychosis was already universal at the time, and seemed to afford the only rational explanation of the apparent injustice involved in the unequal distribution of the good things in this world; and that, if the Sudra was strictly excluded from the religious rites and beliefs of the superior classes, this exclusion in no way involved the question of his ultimate emancipation and his union with the Infinite Spirit, which were as certain in his case as in that of any other sentient being.
62.1) it is contrasted with the Sudra or fourth class (Spiegel, Arische Periode, p. 102).