Above sea-level, where a decisive battle was fought between General Sucre and the Spanish viceroy La Serna in 1824, which resulted in the defeat of the latter and the independence of Peru.
SUCRE, or Chuquisaca, a city of Bolivia, capital of the department of Chuquisaca and nominal capital of the republic, 46 M.
Sucre is the seat of the archbishop of La Plata and Charcas, the primate of Bolivia.
Although the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to it.
Sucre was the first city of Spanish South America to revolt against Spanish rule - on the 25th of May 1809.
In 1840 the name Sucre was adopted in honour of the patriot commander who won the last decisive battle of the war, and then became the first president of Bolivia.
The division was as follows: Federal District (Caracas); Anzoategui (Barcelona); Apure (San Fernando de Apure); Aragua (La Victoria); Bolivar (Ciudad Bolivar); Carabobo (Valencia); Cojedes (San Carlos); Falcon (Coro); Guarico (Calabozo); Lara (Barquisimeto); Merida (Merida); Miranda (Ocumare); Monagas (M'Iaturin); Nueva Esparta (La Asuncion); Portuguesa (Guanare); Sucre (Cumana); Tachira (San Cristobal); Trujillo (Trujillo); Yaracuy (San Felipe); Zamora (Barinas); Zulia (Maracaibo), with the following territories: Amazonas (San Fernando de Atabapo); Delta-Amacuro (Tucupita).
The first-class ports are La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Carupano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Calm Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar.
Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity.
A severe battle was fought at Pichincha, where, by the prowess of his colleague Sucre, the Spaniards were routed, and Quito was entered by the republicans in June 1822.
Improving his advantage, Bolivar pressed forward, and on the 6th of August defeated Canterac on the plains of Junin, after which he returned to Lima, leaving Sucre to follow the royalists in their retreat to Upper Peru - an exploit which the latter executed with equal ability and success, gaining a decisive victory at Ayacucho, and thus completing the dispersion of the Spanish force.
He had to surrender to Sucre at the final battle of Ayacucho, which put an end to Castilian rule.
Besides papers in scientific periodicals he published Indagaciones sobre el estanada de cobre, la vajilla de estano y el vidriado (1803); Memoire sur le sucre de raisins (1808); Recueil des memoires relatifs d la poudre a canon (1815); and Essai sur une des causes qui peuvent amener la formation du calcul (1824).
In 1820 the people of Guayaquil took up the cry of liberty; and in spite of several defeats they continued the contest, till at length, under Antonio Jose de Sucre, who had been sent to their assistance by Bolivar, and reinforced by a Peruvian contingent under Andres de Santa Cruz, they gained a complete victory on May 22, 1822, in a battle fought on the side of Mount Pichincha, at a height of 10,200 ft.
A third Belgian company, Socit anonyme pour Ia fabrication du sucre en Perse, with a large capital, then came to Persia, and began making beetroot sugar in the winter of 1895.
Four of these capitals - Sucre or Chuquisaca, La Paz, Cochabamba and Oruro - have served as the national capital, and Sucre was chosen, but after the revolution of 1898 the capital was at La Paz, which is the commercial metropolis and is more accessible than Sucre.
Lines were in 1907 projected from La Paz to the navigable waters of the Beni, from La Paz to Cochabamba, from Viacha to Oruro, from Uyuni to Potosi and Sucre, from Uyuni to Tupiza, and from Arica to La Paz via Corocoro.
The latter include so-called universities at Sucre (Chuquisaca), La Paz, Cochabamba, Tarija, Potosi, Santa Cruz and Oruro - all of which give instruction in law, the first three in medicine and the first four in theology.
The university at Sucre, which dates from colonial times, and that at La Paz, are the only ones on the list sufficiently well equipped to merit the title.
There is a military academy at La Paz, an ` agricultural school at Umala in the department of La Paz, a mining and civil engineering school at Oruro, commercial schools at Sucre and Trinidad, and several mission schools under the direction of religious orders.
The first includes the departments of Chuquisaca, Oruro, Potosi, Tarija and the Chilean province of Antofagasta, with its seat at Sucre, and is known as the archbishopric of La Plata.
Moreno, Nociones de geografia de Bolivia (Sucre, 1889); Edward D.
In 1824, after the great battle of Ayacucho in Lower Peru, General Sucre, whose valour had contributed so much to the patriot success of that day, marched with a part of the victorious army into Upper Peru.
On the news of the victory a universal rising of the patriots took place, and before Sucre had reached Oruro and Puno, in February 1825, La Paz was already in their possession, and the royalist garrisons of several towns had gone over to their side.
General Sucre was now invested with the supreme command in Upper Peru, until the requisite measures could be taken to establish in that country a regular and constitutional government.
General Sucre was chosen president for life, according to the constitution, but only accepted the appointment for the space of two years, and on the express condition that 2000 Colombian troops should be permitted to remain with him.
Repeated risings occurred, till in the end of 1827 General Sucre and his Colombian troops were driven from La Paz.
In December an attempt was made to pass a law creating Sucre the perpetual capital of the republic. Until this Sucre had taken its turn with La Paz, Cochabamba and Oruro.