Spruce, in Howard's Neueva Quinologia, " Cinchona succirubra," p. 22, note).
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
This mixture is known as cinchona febrifuge, and is prepared chiefly from C. succirubra, which succeeds better in India than the other species in cultivation, and grows at a lower elevation, being consequently procurable in large quantities at a comparatively low price.
In India, C. succirubra, C. officinalis, vars.
Javanica, Hasskarliana and anglica, were likely to lead to disappointment as quinineyielding species, these have been replaced in the plantations as rapidly as possible by the more valuable species, of which C. Ledgeriana, yielding from 5 to io% or even more of quinine, C. officinalis, and a hybrid between C. officinalis and C. succirubra, which has been named C. robusta, are the most important.