Prominent among these are glycerin and succinic acid.
7 succinic acid, 3.2 glycerin and 1.
True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3 to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or "bony" varieties.
True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name "succinite" proposed by Professor.
Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.
Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.
Burmite and simetite agree also in being destitute of succinic acid.
Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol crystallizes in small prisms which melt at 87° C. It condenses with phthalic anhydride to form rhodamine, and with succinic anhydride to rhodamine S.
For succinosuccinic ester, formed by the action of sodium on two molecules of succinic ester, has either of the formulae (I) or (II); oxidation of the free acid gives dioxyterephthalic acid in which the para-positions must remain substituted as in (I) and (II).
Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).
Hydroxylamine gives the dioxime of succinic aldehyde.
He also found that diaceto succinic ester reacts with compounds of the type NH 2 R(R = H, CH 3, OH, NHC 6 H 5, &c.) to form pyrrol derivatives CH3 CO CH CO 2 R, C(CH3) :C C02R A NH 2 R -?- - RN(CH 3 CO CH CO 2 R C(CH3) :C C02R By using compounds of the type NH 2 R and acetophenone acetoacetic ester C 6 H 5 CO CH 2.
His earlier work included an investigation of succinic acid, and the preparation of phenyl cyanide (benzonitrile), the simplest nitrile of the aromatic series; but later his time was mainly occupied with questions of technology and public health rather than with pure chemistry.
Succinic aldehyde dioxime, HON: CH CH2 CH2 CH: NOH, is obtained by boiling an alcoholic solution of pyrrol with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and anhydrous sodium carbonate (G.
A boiling solution of caustic potash hydrolyses it to ammonia and succinic acid.
Some fusel oil, glycerin and succinic acid appear to be formed simultaneously, but in small amount.
MALIC ACID (HYDROXYETHYLENE SUCCINIC Acid), C4H605, an organic acid found abundantly in the juices of many plants, particularly in mountain-ash berries, in unripe apples and in grapes.
Dibasic acids of the paraffin series of hydrocarbons have the general formula C n H 2 (000H) 2 "; malonic and succinic acids are important members.
It is an unsaturated compound, and on oxidation with potassium permanganate gives succinic acid.
Real larch turpentine is a thick tenacious fluid, of a deep yellow colour, and nearly transparent; it does not harden by time; it contains 15% of the essential oil of turpentine, also resin, succinic, pinic and sylvic acids, and a bitter extractive matter.
Acetonyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO -CH a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C. Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59), CH3000H2C1+Na CH [[Coch3(Coor) ->Ch3co Ch2 Ch 000h,(Coor) -Ch3co]] CH2 CH2 000H3; or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L.
C 2 SUCCINIC ACID H 4 (CO 2 H) 2.
Two acids corresponding to this empirical formula are known - namely ethylene succinic acid, H0 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H and ethylidene succinic acid CH3 CH(C02H)2.
Ethylene succinic acid occurs in amber, in various resins and lignites, in fossilized wood, in many members of the natural orders of Papaveraceae and Compositae, in unripe grapes, urine and blood.
Wolffenstein, 1899, p. 2 534); by the hydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene dibromide) C 2 H 4 - >C 2 H 4 Br 2 --*C 2 H 4 (CN) 2 - >C 2 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2; by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation of sodioinalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (R02C)2CH CH2 C02R; this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted succinic acids.
Succinyl chloride, obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on succinic acid, is a colourless liquid which boils at 190° C. In many respects it behaves as though it were dichlorbutyro-lactone, /CC12 C 2 He >O; e.g.
Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.
Methyl succinic acid (pyrotartaric acid), HO 2 C CH 2.
Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3 CH(C02H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester.
It may be distinguished from the isomeric ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give a precipitate with ferric chloride.
At the same time various subsidiary products such as glycerin, succinic acid, small quantities of higher alcohols, volatile acids and compound esters are produced.
TARTARIC ACID (dihydroxy-succinic acid), C 4 H 6 0 6, or HO 2 C CH (OH) CH (OH) CO 2 H.
Kerp, Ann., 1896, 290, p. 123): CH2 C(CH3) 3CH3 CO CH3-(CHa)2C? ??CH CH 2 COQ by the condensation of succinic acid with sodium ethylate, followed by saponification and elimination of carbon dioxide:- 2C2H4(COzH) C 2 - H2 CH 2 CO CO.
1.42) oxidizes it to succinic and acetic acids.
The 1.3 compound boils at 81-82° C. and on oxidation yields succinic and oxalic acids.
The 1.4 compound also boils at 81-82° C. and on oxidation gives succinic and malonic acids.
4 is obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester.
An important derivative is succino-succinic acid, C 6 H 6 0 2 (CO 2 H) 21 or cyclo-hexanedione-2.5-dicarboxylic acid-I.
4, which is obtained as its ester by the action of sodium or sodium ethylate on succinic ester (H.