The word, which signifies darkness, is in Homer the gloomy subterranean region through which the departed shades pass into Hades.
In 1747, however, the town was taken by the French, under Marshal Lowendahl, who surprised it by means of a subterranean passage.
The "Marble Arch" cave near Florencecourt, with its emerging river, is a characteristic example of the subterranean waterways in the limestone.
Terrestrial plants have a gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which is necessary for respiration and feeding.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
The subterranean passage of the Alpheus in the upper part of its course (confirmed by modern explorers), and the freshness of the water of Arethusa in spite of its proximity to the sea, led to the belief that it was the outlet of the river.
To the southeast there are very extensive ruins of subterranean temples and other buildings half-buried in the sand by which the ancient town was overwhelmed.
Shortly after this it takes for the second time a subterranean course, to appear finally on the surface near Oberlaibach.
A peculiar feature is presented by the level upland basins which furnish abundant pasturage during the summer months; the more remarkable are the Omalo in the White Mountains (about 4000 ft.) drained by subterranean outlets (KaTa(30Opa), Nida (Eis T7)v "IBav) in Psiloriti (between 5000 and 6000 ft.), and the Lassithi plain (about 3000 ft.), a more extensive area, on which are several villages.
The so-called Labyrinth, near the ruins of Gortyna, was a subterranean quarry from which the city was built.
We can hardly any longer hesitate to recognize in this vast building, with its winding corridors and subterranean ducts, the Labyrinth of later tradition; and as a matter of fact a maze pattern recalling the conventional representation of the Labyrinth in Greek art actually formed the decoration of one of the corridors of the palace.
The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known,the subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean species of Aphaenogaster having been described by J.
With such subterranean pests little can be done beyond rolling the land to keep it firm, and thus preventing them from moving rapidly from plant to plant.
Beneath the fine banqueting hall, a flight of steps descends into "the Wogan," a vast subterranean chamber giving access to the harbour.
The larva may be aquatic, or subterranean, or a burrower in wood, while the imago is aerial.
A range of low hills intervenes between Felanitx and the Mediterranean; upon one summit, the Puig de San Sebastian, stands a Moorish castle with a remarkable series of subterranean vaults.
Many of the lakes are connected by subterranean channels, and a change in the surface of one lake is often accompanied by a change in the surface of another.
A peculiar feature of the drainage of the state is the large number of subterranean streams and of springs, always found to a greater or less extent in limestone regions.
These were entirely subterranean, and little is now to be seen on the site but a great tumulus, the Cucumella, and a few smaller ones.
Christina (discovered with its subterranean church in 1880-81) belongs to A.D.
The remains are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in the rock.
Hadrian took from masters the power of life and death and abolished the subterranean prisons.
The city was laid out as a gridiron of parallel streets, each of which had an attendant subterranean canal.
CATACOMB, a subterranean excavation for the interment of the dead or burial-vault.
The custom of subterranean interment gradually died out, and entirely ceased with the sack of Rome by Alaric, A.D.
The relics having been removed, the visits of pilgrims naturally ceased, and by degrees the very existence of those wonderful subterranean cemeteries was forgotten.
The true " Columbus of this subterranean world," as he has been aptly designated, was the indefatigable Antonio Bosio (d.
Most accurate picture of these wonderful subterranean labyrinths.
The idea of general intercommunication is negatived by the fact that the chief cemeteries are separated by low ground or valleys, where any subterranean galleries would be at once filled with water.
It now remains to speak of the history of these subterranean burial-places, .together with the reasons for, and mode of, their construction.
Almost without exception, they had their origin in small burial areas, the property of private persons or of families, gradually ramifying and receiving additions of one subterranean storey after another as each was required for interments.
It must suffice to say that the earliest examples are only to be distinguished from the mural decorations employed by their pagan contemporaries (as seen at Pompeii and r Mommsen's chosen example of an ancient burial-chamber, extending itself into a catacomb, or gathering subterranean additions round it till a catacomb was established, is that of the cemetery of St Domitilla, traditionally identified with a granddaughter of Vespasian, and the catacomb of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo on the Appian and Ardeatine way.
Subterranean cemeteries of the general character of those described are very frequent in all southern and eastern countries.
The tombs in some instances form subterranean groups more analogous to the general idea of a catacomb.
- In 1873 was discovered, near the cemetery of St Domitilla, the semi-subterranean basilica of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo, Too ft.
Stevenson, since dead, discovered in 1896 a small subterranean basilica in the catacomb of Santi Pietro e Marcellino on the Via Labicana, with pious acclamations on the plaster similar to those in the Papal crypt in St Calixtus.
Near the well-known subterranean chapel in the Coemeterium Ostrianum was discovered by Mgr.
This is perhaps the most satisfactory comparison, for besides the Greco-Roman remains there is an extensive subterranean city of unknown date, which may be of great antiquity, though even this is still sub judice.
The great subterranean " city " at Ed-Dera'a has been partially destroyed by the local sub-governor, in order to prevent it becoming a refuge of fugitives from justice or from government requirements (conscription, taxation, &c.).
It contains the principal public buildings, and some interesting old forts, dating from the middle and close of the 18th century, though the subterranean works below Fort Charlotte are attributed to an earlier period.
No part of the subterranean working of a mine may be abandoned without official permission obtained according to formalities specified in the law.
Those in the middle are thin, having only the pavement of the cella to support, and are provided with doors and partitions that make a sort of subterranean labyrinth.
In the eastern suburbs there is one of the largest grave-mounds in Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, and with subterranean chambers excavated to a depth of 65 ft.
In 1904 Dr Carton and the abbe Leynaud discovered huge Christian catacombs with several miles of subterranean galleries to which access is obtained by a small vaulted chamber.
Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
It is a logical consequence that Nergal is pictured also as the deity who presides over the nether-world, and stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead, who are supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla.
Near Fasano are two small subterranean chapels with paintings of the 11th century A.D.
It is traversed by the subterranean aqueducts by which the city was supplied 5 (see Aqueducts), and by a few ancient roads, but contains practically no remains of ancient buildings.
"The rivers pouring out of the caverns at the base of the Lycian and Pisidian ranges of the Taurus come forth from their subterranean courses charged with carbonate of lime, and are continually adding to the Pamphylian plain.
Chinchillas live in burrows, and these subterranean dwellings undermine the ground in some parts of the Chilean Andes to such an extent as to cause danger to travellers on horseback.