The substructure was excavated in 188 3 by F.
The materials of the native styles of India, however, did not lend themselves to their utilization as in Syria, Egypt and North Africa, where the columns and capitals formed the substructure of the arcades which surrounded their courts.
Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.
The Saalhof, built on the site of the palace erected by Louis the Pious in 822, overlooking the Main, has a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from Carolingian times.
His tomb still exists on the plateau between lake Gygaea and the river Hermus to the north of Sardis - a large mound of earth with a substructure of huge stones.
The substructure which supported the platforms on which the dwellings were placed was most frequently of piles driven into the bottom of the lake.
In cases where piles have not been used, as at Niederwil and Wauwyl, the substructure is a mass of fascines or faggots laid parallel and crosswise upon one another with intervening layers of brushwood or of clay and gravel, a few piles here and there being fixed throughout the mass to serve as guides or stays.
The substructure consists of (a) the piers and end piers or abutments, the former sustaining a vertical load, and the latter having to resist, in addition, the oblique thrust of an arch, the pull of a suspension chain, or the thrust of an embankment; and (b) the foundations below the ground level, which are often difficult and costly parts of the structure, because the position of a'bridge may be fixed by considerations which preclude the selection of a site naturally adapted for carrying a heavy structure.
The cost of the superstructure increases very much as the span increases, but the greater the cost of the substructure, the larger the span which is economical.
The substructure of a bridge comprises the piers, abutments and foundations.
On the eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south transept.
The place usually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substructure of the dormitory (Z).
Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure (U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi above.
The Temple of Zeus, south of the Pelopium, stood on a high substructure with three steps.
We then descend to the second terrace, in the centre of which the substructure of the great second temple was revealed, together with so much of the walls, as well as the several architectural members forming the superstructure, that it has been possible for E.
The substructure was built up from the bottom of the loch, partly of brushwood but chiefly of logs and trunks of trees with the branches lopped off, placed in layers, each disposed transversely or obliquely across the one below it.
A crannog in Loch-an-Dhugael, Balinakill, Argyllshire, described by the same explorer in 1893, revealed a substructure similar to that at Lochlee, with a double row of piles enclosing an area 45 to 50 ft.
From their common feature of a substructure of brushwood and logs built up from the bottom, the crannogs have been classed as fascine-dwellings, to distinguish them from the typical piledwellings of the earlier periods in Switzerland, whose platforms are supported by piles driven into the bed of the lake.
In diameter, the substructure formed of logs and brushwood mingled with stones and clay, and outlined by piles driven into the bottom of the shallow lake.
The outline of the ancient theatre can be traced in the Piazza delle Grazie, and some of its substructure walls are preserved.