But, using substance as he does always in the Kantian sense of permanent substratum beneath changing phenomena, and never in the Aristotelian sense of any distinct thing, he proceeds to make distinctions between the applications of causality and of substance.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
In the first place, buds may be produced only from the hydrorhiza, which grows out and branches to form a basal stolon, typically net-like, spreading over the substratum to which the founderpolyp attached itself.
Matter and form are here identified, and the evolution of the world is presented as the unfolding of the world-spirit to its perfect forms according to the plastic substratum (matter) which is but one of its sides.
The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.
The base of the stem bears numerous cell-filaments (rhizoids) which fix the plant to the substratum upon which it is growing.
One of the best known classifications on these lines is that by Warming.1 Warming recognized and defined four ecological classes as follows: Hydrophytes.These live in a watery or wet substratum, with at least 80% of water.
Xerophytes.These are plants which live in very dry places, where the substratum has less than 10% of water.
Ha-lophytes.These are plants living in situations where the substratum contains a high proportion of sodium chloride.
Schimper (1903: 102) thinks that in the case of aquatic plants, the difference must depend on the amount of lime in the water, for the physical nature of the substratum is the same in each case.
But this very development of Mosaism implies the existence of an original nucleus or substratum, although the recovery of its precise extent is very difficult.
A situation - hazardous in spite of its comic substratum - between Thaumasta and the pretended Parthenophil is conducted, as Gifford points out, with real delicacy; but the comic scenes are merely stagy, notwithstanding, or by reason of, the effort expended on them by the author.
High, with hills rising to 600 ft.; their sides are generally steep. The surface is covered with a rich mould unusual in coral islands, mixed towards the sea with sand, and having a substratum of red or blue clay.
Moller - serves as the substratum for a special fungus (Rozites gongylophora), the staple food of the ants.
Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
The substratum of the plain is a bed of boulders, covered during the lapse of ages by a deposit of rich alluvial soil.
They may be divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a substratum of clay, marl or limestone - areas of such soil are found throughout the state; the " hammocks," which have soil of similar ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands - large areas of this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp lands, chiefly in E.
For the rest, a substratum of superstitious beliefs, which survives from the days when the Malays professed only their natural religion, is to be found firmly rooted in the minds of the people, and the influence of Mahommedanism, which regards such things with horror, has been powerless to eradicate this.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
A perfectly formless matter (materia prima) was regarded by him as the universal substratum and common element of all finite existences.
On descending into the substratum the finer material decreases and more stones are met with; farther down are seen larger fragments of unaltered rock closely packed, and this brash or rubble grades insensibly into the unbroken rock below.
In the encrusting type, which is found in a large proportion of the genera, the zooids are usually in a single layer, with their orifices facing away from the substratum; but in certain species the colony becomes multilaminar by the continued superposition of new zooids over the free surfaces of the older ones, whose orifices they naturally occlude.
The soil of the northern portion of the county is a rich brown loam, on a substratum of clay or gravel.
But matter is not, in his system, to be understood with the common meaning, but with a deeper sense as the substratum of all conscious and physical existence; and thus the laws of being are identified with the laws of thought.
In the district of the Weald marl prevails, with a substratum of clay.
It is also active force without a substratum; as active force the primeval Being is perpetually producing something else, without alteration, or motion, or diminution of itself.
And the reason for this state of things is that bodies rest on a substratum of matter.
This theory is, of course, not explicitly presented by Smith as a foundation of his economic doctrines, but it is really the secret substratum on which they rest.
It is in this position that free-swimming forms glide over the substratum of organic debris in which they find their food.
The thought of the identical, indifferent, absolute substratum of both nature and spirit, the advance to Identitdtsphilosophie; (3) the opposition of negative and positive philosophy, an opposition which is the theme of the Berlin lectures, though its germs ma y be traced back to 1804.
On the other hand, a list of post-diluvian dynasties, which is quoted by Eusebius and Georgius Syncellus as having been given by Berossus, cannot, in its present form, be reconciled with the monumental facts, though a substratum of historical truth is discoverable in it.
Wood potentially a table; primary, as an indeterminate something which is a substratum capable of becoming natural substances, of which it is always one; and it is primarily the matter of earth, water, air, fire, the four simple bodies (airxa 6w,uara) with natural rectilineal motions in the terrestrial world (De Gen.
Thus even God is a substance, a separate individual, whose differentiating essence is to be a living being, eternal and very good; He is however the only substance whose essence is entirely without matter and unconjoined with matter; and therefore He is a substance, not because He has or is a substratum beneath attributes, but wholly because He is a separate individual, different both from nature and men, yet the final good of the whole universe.
The matter of a natural substance is not a primary matter which is one indeterminate substratum of all natural substances, but is only one body as able to be changed by a force which is another substance able to change it, e.g.
Wundt, however, having satisfied himself of the power of mere logical thought beyond experience, goes on to further apply his hypothesis, and supposes that, in dealing with the physical world, logical thinking having added to experience the " supplementary notion " of causality as the connexion of appearances which vary together, adds also the " supplementary notion " of substance as substratum of the connected appearances.
He describes it as idealism in the form of ideal realism, because it recognizes an ideating will requiring substance as substratum or matter for outer relations of phenomena.
But these are not primary meanings; and matter, or supposed substratum, in particular, he says, is not actually substance (Met.
Locke mistook it to mean " substratum," or support of qualities, and naturally concluded that it is unknown.
These beings are doubtless due in part to poetic imagination, but underlying this there may be a substratum of primitive religious belief.
(c) The crustaceous thallus, which is the most common of all, forms a mere crust on the substratum, varying in thickness, and may be squamose (in Squamaria), radiate (in Placodium), areolate, granulose or pulverulent (in various Lecanorae and Lecideae).
The term epithallus is sometimes applied to the superficial dense portion of the cortical layer and the term hypothallus to the layer, when specially modified, in immediate contact with the substratum; the hypothallus is usually dark or blackish.
A yellow colour with caustic potash solution is produced not only by atranoric acid but also by evernic acid, thamnolic acid, &c. Again in the case of Xanthoria parietina vulpinic acid is only to be found in young thalli growing on sandstone; in older forms or in those growing on another substratum it is not to be detected.
A similar relation between oil formation and the nature of the substratum has been observed in many lichens.
In Rhizopus certain hyphae creep horizontally on the surface of the substratum, and then anchor their tips to it by means of a tuft of short branches (appressorium), the walls of which soften and gum themselves to it, then another branch shoots out from the tuft and repeats the process, like a strawberry-runner.
The simpler mycelia consist of hyphae all alike and thin-walled, or merely differing in the diameter of the branches of various orders, or in their relations to the environment, some plunging into the substratum like roots, others remaining on its surface, and others (aerial hyphae) rising into the air.
165 did Hellenic ways and modes of thought begin to be assumed; before that we find a deep substratum of Celtic feeling and ways, on which Roman elements had been superimposed without filtering through a Hellenic medium.
A slight degree of contraction of muscle seems the substratum of all attention.
Some Chlorophyceae are terrestrial in habit, usually growing on a damp substratum, however.
The forms which grow away from the substratum vary greatly in external configuration.
The great majority of algae, however, grow like land-plants attached to a substratum, and to these the term benthos is now generally applied.
In the next group of forms the simplest are crusts attached to the substratum throughout their extent, and growing at the margin.
The Oxus figures in Persian romantic history as the limit between Iran and Turan, but the substratum of settled population to the north as well as the south was probably of Iranian lineage.
An important factor which thus served to maintain the rites in a more or less stable condition was the predominance of what may be called the astral theology as the theoretical substratum of the Babylonian religion, and which is equally pronounced in the religious system of Assyria.
Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.
The former asked the question, "What is the substratum of the things we see?"; the latter, "How did the sensible world become what it is; of what nature was the motive force?"
Their works were solid and substantial edifices, forming the substratum for future scholarship. In addition to this they brought philosophy and scientific thoroughness to bear on studies which had been pursued in a more literary spirit.
It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid substratum of reality.