The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius' translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and species, (1) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them.
What exists as a substance and the basis of qualities or forms (quod est) may be said substare; the forms on the other hand by which such an individual substance exists qualitatively (quo est) subsistent, though it cannot be said that they substant.
But in his metaphysics founded thereon he interprets the outside object to mean an object outside you and me, but not self-subsistent; not outside universal reason, but only " Bent reason."
" Independent " (xcwptcrrov), or "self-subsistent" (Ka@' a)TO) means " existing apart," i.e.
There is no contradiction, then, though Bradley supposes one, between a thing being an individual, independent, self-subsistent substance, existing apart as a distinct thing, and being also related to other things.
The Ideas of Plato are no longer self-subsistent entities; they are the elements which constitute the content of spiritual activity.
In all this the individual is the sole self-subsistent reality.
In the case of any subject-kind, its definition and its existence being avouched by vas, "heavenly body" for example, the problem is, given the fact of a non-self-subsistent characteristic of it, such as the eclipse of the said body, to find a ground, a / .t aov which expressed the a'irwv, in virtue of which the adjectival concept can be exhibited as belonging to the subjectconcept Kau' a&rO in the strictly adequate sense of the phrase in which it means also?7 abrO.
Of a non-self-subsistent or attributive conception definition in its highest attainable form is a recasting of the syllogism, in which it was shown that the attribute was grounded in the substance or self-subsistent subject of which it is.
Is per se of line; (3) self-subsistent; (4) connected with the subject as consequent to ground.
The form which a mathematical science treats as relatively self-subsistent is certainly not the constitutive idea.
Hence "it is evident that wisdom, knowledge and understanding are eternal and self-subsistent things, superior to matter and all sensible beings, and independent upon them"; and so also are moral good and evil.