Back of the islands are the quiet waters of lagoons, and at the mouths of rivers are several shallow bays indenting the mainland; these bays were formed by only a slight subsidence of the land and the rivers are filling them with deposits of silt.
After the subsidence came another period of uplift, possibly still in progress.
This cutting off was caused largely by subsidence, though partly by marine action.
The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
A theory of a still continuing subsidence of the islands was formed by Kurz in 1866 and confirmed by Oldham in 1884.
On his return from exile, after the subsidence of the Tatar deluge, he found his kingdom in ashes; and his two great remedies, wholesale immigration and castle-building, only sowed the seeds of fresh disasters.
Where each floor is timbered by itself with light timbers, as is the practice on the continent of Europe, the consolidation of the rock-filling under pressure gives rise to considerable subsidence of the unmined ore, which has frequently settled 20 ft.
An interesting local phenomenon is that of lake Tequesquiten, which was formed by the subsidence of a large area of ground about the middle of the 19th century, carrying with it an old town of the same name.
Tanganyika has been formed by the subsidence of a long narrow tract of country relatively to the surrounding plateaus, which fall to the lake in abrupt cliffs, some thousands of feet high in places.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
The Strait of Dover, the Dardanelles and Bosporus; (3) by overflowing through the subsidence of the land, as in the straits of Bering, Torres and Formosa.
With careful packing it is estimated that the surface subsidence will not exceed 40% of the thickness of the seam removed, and will usually be considerably less.
That a rapid subsidence did take place from the higher level is indicated by the fact that between it and the present level there is an absence of indications of erosive energy.
Ansgar preached in Denmark from 826 to 861, but it was not till after the subsidence of the Viking raids that Adaldag, archbishop of Hamburg, could open a new and successful mission, which resulted in the erection of the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ribe and Aarhus (c. 948), though the real conversion of Denmark must be dated from the baptism of King Harold Bluetooth (960).
The existence of ancient lacustrine beaches, upheaved between the two basins by volcanic agencies or left dry by some enlargement of the San Juan outfall, and a consequent subsidence of the water-level, seems to indicate that the lakes were formerly united.
Then followed a subsidence, which not only re-established communication through the Danish channels, but allowed the Baltic to become sufficiently salt for such forms as Cardium edule and Littorina littorea.
There is no doubt that at this epoch various movements of elevation and subsidence affected the north-west of Europe, and modern Ireland may have had extensions into warmer regions on the west and south, while the area now left to us was almost buried under ice.
Away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.
Similarly, the subsidence of malaria during cold weather and its seasonal prevalence find an adequate explanation in the conditions governing insect life.
These were at one time more numerous than at the present day; earthquakes and subsidence of foundations have brought many of them down, the latest to fall being the great tower of San Marco itself, which collapsed on July 14th, 1902.
The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.
It does not, however, form a delta proportionate to the volume of its water, owing to a strong sea current flowing northwards close to the shore, to the sudden sinking of the sea to a great depth immediately off the mouth of the river, and possibly also to the permanent subsidence of the Italian coast from the Tiber .mouth southwards to Terracina.
The legend may be a greatly exaggerated version of some actual subsidence of inhabited land.
There resulted a widespread and violent though ephemeral controversy, after the subsidence of which he published a Lecture on Tradition, which passed through several editions, and a volume on The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England.
At the time of the last great subsidence, in glacial times, an arm of the sea extended across Sweden, submerging a great part of the littoral up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and including the Plies period the this of themnorthe and Baltic were s fg ficiently salt for oysters to flourish.
Probably before this period the movements of subsidence had set in which faulted the basalt plateaus, lowered them to form the basin of Lough Neagh, and broke up the continuity of the volcanic land of the North Atlantic area.
In post-Glacial times, a subsidence admitted the sea into the Lagan valley and across the eastern shore in several places; but elevation, in the days of early human occupation, brought these last marine deposits to light, and raised the beaches and shore-terraces some 10 to 20 ft.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
There is a special pleasure in the subsidence of that meaning beneath a soothing sensation; but a system based thereon cannot be universal.
Second, the general subsidence of the coast has sunk the lower-lying parts of the ancient town under water.
Owing to the pumping of the brine for the salt-works there is a continual subsidence of the ground, detrimental to the buildings, and new houses are mostly built in the suburbs.
The subsidence of the latter usually lasts until October.
One steadily exercised influence is constantly at work, for the shores bordering the Pacific Ocean are slowly though appreciably rising, while on the side of the Japan Sea a corresponding subsidence is taking place.
The provision of a new graving dock adjoining the Alexandra was delayed in October 1905 by a subsidence of the ground during its construction.
The lower Hudson, below Troy, is really a fiord, the stream valley being drowned by the sea through subsidence of the land.
A still greater subsidence farther north produced Puget Sound.
The chief cause of this subsidence was the division among the reformers themselves.
In many places there are different channels for high and low water, the latter being partly filled by each freshet, and recut after each subsidence; and the river meanders tortuously through the alluvial bottom in scores of great bends, loops and cut-offs.
Evidence of slight upheaval is occasionally afforded by an elevated coral-reef along the shore, and evidence of the subsidence of the S.
Superficially, the continuity of the zone is broken at intervals by gaps of greater or less extent; but these are due, in part at least, to the subsidence of portions of the folded belt and their subsequent burial by more recent accumulations.
The Russian expedition which investigated the Kara-boghaz in 1896 concluded that there is no permanent subsidence in the level of the sea.
The subsidence within is less rapid than the rise; and the streams are impassable for about seven months in each year.
After the uplift came a period of subsidence, during which this region sank one or more thousand feet, allowing the sea to encroach on the land and run far inland into the previously made river valleys.
To this subsidence are due the picturesque coastal scenery, the numerous islands and bays, the good harbours and the peculiar coast-line.
After this period of subsidence the process of elevation set in which gave the Baltic its present form and physical condition, and appears to be still in progress.
The folding and consequent elevation went on until the close of the Miocene period when a considerable subsidence took place and the Pliocene sea overspread the lower portions of the range.
Forbes's and Guppy's investigations go to show that, contrary to Darwin's belief, there is no evidence of upheaval or of subsidence in either of the Keeling groups.
Some of the more viscous crude oils obtained in the United States are employed as lubricants under the name of " natural oils," either without any treatment or after clarification by subsidence and filtration through animal charcoal.
It is of irregular form, consisting of two distinct mountainous parts, united by a low isthmus, which a slight subsidence would submerge.
Subsequent faulting has caused the subsidence of the greater part of Tyrrhenis, including nearly the whole of the inner zone of the mountain chain, and has left only the outer zones standing as the present Apennines.
The most striking feature is the existence of two great lines of depression, due largely to the subsidence of whole segments of the earth's crust, the lowest parts of which are occupied by vast lakes.
This theory of crust blocks dropped by subsidence is opposed to Lapworth's theory of vast crust-folds, but geology is the science which has to decide between them.
Suess,' who points out that the plan of the earth is the result of Suess two movements of the crust - one, subsidence over theory.
There has been a land subsidence here, as throughout the N.
Towards the south the two lines converge and give place to one great valley (occupied by Lake Nyasa), the southern part of which is less distinctly due to rifting and subsidence than the rest of the system.
The precise date of the separation is fixed as later than the Miocene, since the fringe of the marine Miocene deposits along the southern coast of Victoria is broken, from Flinders to Alberton; and this gap was no doubt due to the subsidence of the land; of which the islands in the Bass Strait are remnants, which then connected Tasmania with the continent.