Huxley.° Some of the " regions " have now to be called subregions, e.g.
Palaeotropical Ethiopian Region 4 Oriental In the following account the characterization of the various regions and subregions has to a very great extent been adopted from Newton's article in his Dictionary of Birds, and from the chapter on distribution in the article on " Birds " in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition.
(A) Austrogaea, the Australian region in the wider sense,with the Papuan, Australian and New Zealand subregions, including also Polynesia.
The boundaries of the subregions are not well defined.
It is difficult to subdivide the Neotropical region into subregions; the best suggestion is that of Newton: Antillean, with the exception of the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as those which lie on the northern coast of South America; Patagonian, including Chile and part of Peru; Columbian, comprising the rest of the continent and also Central America.
Both subregions possess, besides others, the following characteristic birds: Ratitae, viz.
So large a portion of the Ethiopian subregion lies between the tropics that no surprise need be expressed at the richness of its fauna relatively to that of the last two subregions we have considered.
Naturally no line whatever can be drawn between the Oriental and the Palaearctic subregions, and many otherwise essentially Indo-Malayan families extend far into the Australian realm, far across Wallace's line, whilst the reverse takes place to a much more moderate extent.