The vegetation of the subregion is rich in shrubs: myrtle, bay, Cistus, Pistacia, A rbz;tus, heaths in its western portion, and the ground-palm (Chamaerops).
The Nearctic and the Palaearctic. The reduction of the Oriental to a subregion, with consequent " provincial " rank of its main subdivisions, will probably be objected to, but these are matters of taste and prejudice.
The New Zealand Subregion, considered by Professors Newton and Huxley and various other zoogeographers as deserving the rank of a region, is, and to all appearance has long been, more isolated than any other portion of the globe.
Besides the three larger islands numerous satellites belong to the subregion, as Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec islands, with the Chatham, Auckland and Macquarie groups.
The Australian Subregion comprises Australia and Tasmania.
The Papuan Subregion, chiefly New Guinea with its dependencies, the Timor group of islands, the Moluccas and Celebes.
- Excepting towards the north, where, in Mexico, it meets, and inosculates with the Nearctic subregion, the boundaries of the Neotropical region are simple enough to trace, comprehending as it does the whole of South America and all Central America; besides including the Falkland islands to the south-east and the Galapagos under the equator to the west, as well as the Antilles or West India islands up to the Florida channel.
The Antillean Subregion is in many respects one of the most suggestive and interesting.
There is no family of birds common to the Nearctic area and the Antillean subregion without occurring also in other parts of the Neotropical region, a fact which proves its, affinity to the latter.
The Patagonian Subregion, most extratropical, is naturally devoid of a good many typically tropical birds, or these are but poorly represented, for instance Caerebidae, Mniotiltidae, Tanagridae, Vireonidae.
Restricted to and peculiar to the subregion is only the little Oscine family of Chamaeidae, restricted to the coast district of California.
The Palaearctic Subregion is, broadly speaking, Europe and Asia, with the exception of India and China.
Like the Nearctic the Palaearctic subregion seems to possess but one single peculiar family of land birds, the Panuridae, represented by the beautiful species known to Englishmen as the bearded titmouse, Panurus biarmicus.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
So large a portion of the Ethiopian subregion lies between the tropics that no surprise need be expressed at the richness of its fauna relatively to that of the last two subregions we have considered.
The natural division of the subregion is that into an African and a Madagascar province.
The Oriental Subregion comprises all the countries and numerous islands between the Palaearctic and Australian areas; it possesses upwards of seventy families, of which, however, only one is peculiar, but this family, the Eurylaemidae or broadbills, is of great importance since it represents all the Subclamatores.