Of the Passeres the honeysuckers (Meliphagidae) are most characteristic, and, abounding in 1 The following old-fashioned rough computation may serve as an indication of the relative size of the orders and suborders of recent birds: Ratitae.
It is perhaps safer to subdivide the Order into 6 Suborders (in the number of these following Benham, except in combining the Sabelliformia and Hermelliformia).
The chief difficulty in this scheme is offered by the Moniligastridae, which in some degree combine the characters of both the suborders, into neither of which will they fit accurately.
Notwithstanding this, to Gloger seems to belong the credit of being the first author to avail himself in a book intended for practical ornithologists of the new light that had already been shed on Systematic Ornithology; and accordingly we have the second order of his arrangement, the A y es Passerinae, divided into two suborders: singing passerines (melodusae), and passerines without an apparatus of song-muscles (anomalae) - the latter including what some later writers called Picariae.
Starting from the basis " that the phrase `birds are greatly modified reptiles' would hardly be an exaggerated expression of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amphibia as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their likenesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire how the A y es could be most appropriately subdivided into orders, suborders and families.
The Aegithognathae, the fourth and last of the " Suborders," is characterized by a form of palate in some respects intermediate between the two preceding.
The whole " system " or scheme of classification was termed a genealogical tree (Stammbaum); the main branches were termed " phyla," their branchings " sub-phyla "; the great branches of the sub-phyla were termed " cladi," and the " cladi " divided into " classes," these into sub-classes, these into legions, legions into orders, orders into sub-orders, suborders into tribes, tribes into families, families into genera, genera into species.
Orders: Eleutheroblastea, Hydroidae seu Leptolinae (Sub-orders: Anthomedusae, Leptomedusae), Hydrocorallinae, Graptolitoidea Trachylinae (Suborders: Trachomedusae, Narcomedusae), Siphonophora.
Orders: Ichthyornes, Colymbiformes, Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes, Ciconiiformes, (Suborders: Steganopodes, Ardeae, Ciconiae, Phoenicopteri), Anseriformes (Sub-orders: Palamedeae, Anseres), Falconiformes (Sub-orders: Cathartae, 1 Craniata may be usefully divided into 3 grades: (a) Branchiata Heterodactyla, which includes Pisces except Cyclostomes.
These two suborders are usually known as the Sessiliventra and Petioliventra respectively, but the names Symphyta and Apocrita proposed in 1867 by C. Gerstaecker have priority, and should not be replaced.
The order is divided into two suborders, the Heteroptera and the Homoptera.
- In this order, exclusion of the Phyllocarida will leave three suborders of very unequal extent, the Phyllopoda,.
Sars (1901) proposed seven suborders - Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphoida, Monstrilloida, Caligoida, Lernaeoida.
- Medusae with umbrella flattened or disk-like, without coronal groove; lips always prolonged into long oral arms. The most prolific and dominant group of the Scyphomedusae, containing two suborders; the Semaeostomae, in which the oral arms remain separate, and the Rhizostomeae, in FIG.
(For an account of coral formations see Coral-Reefs.) In the present state of our knowledge the Zoantharia in which a primary cycle of six couples of mesenteries is (or may be inferred to be) completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight Edwardsian mesenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in the exocoeles of the pre-existing mesenterial cycles, may be classed in an order Actinjidea, and this may be divided into the suborders Malacactiniae, comprising the soft-bodied Actinians, such as Actinia, Sagartia, Bunodes, &c., and the Scleractiniae, comprising the corals.
Gregory divides this into four suborders, each representing a distinct evolutionary series; i.
Of the other suborders of ungulates, the Toxodontia and Litopterna are exclusively South American, and while the former may possibly be related to the Hyracoidea and Barypoda, the latter is perhaps more nearly akin to the Perissodactyla.
Beginning with the earliest known lemur, Anaptomorphus, this genus shows tendencies towards the anthropoids, and, when we pass up into the Oligocene of the Old World, Adapis is a decidedly mixed type, and probably not far from the common stem-form which gave origin to both suborders of the Primates.