As to the number of vessels, which fluctuates from month to month, little can be said that is wholly accurate at any given moment, but, very roughly, the French navy in 1909 included 25 battleships, 7 coast defence ironclads, 19 armoured cruisers, 36 protected cruisers, 22 s1oops, gunboats, &c., 45 destroyers, 319 torpedo boats, 71 submersibles and submarines and 8 auxiliary cruisers.
Submarines - -- I 4 2
The German battle cruiser " Goeben " eluded the British Mediterranean fleet and got safely into the Sea of Marmora; three British cruisers were sunk by submarines in the North Sea; and a British squadron under Adml.
On the other hand, German sporadic attacks by sea and air on British watering places and the increasing activity of German submarines gave Mr. Churchill and the Admiralty much concern.
He determined to treat prisoners captured from submarines, in view of their breaches of the laws of war, with more severity than ordinary prisoners; but the Germans retaliated harshly on the most noteworthy English prisoners in their hands, and Mr. Balfour, on succeeding Mr. Churchill, gave up this discrimination.
The arrival of German submarines 3 during this month proved 3 Already a special German submarine command had been established in the Adriatic, with bases at Pola and Cattaro, and some small boats were sent thither by rail.
Hamilton made Imbros his headquarters, and troops also were sometimes collected there owing to its vicinity both to Helles and to Anzac. Within the Dardanelles the battleship " Goliath " had been torpedoed by the Turkish destroyer " Muavenet-i-Milliye " on May 13; on the other hand British submarines were performing invaluable service, diving under the mine-fields, causing havoc amongst enemy craft in the channel itself and higher up, and threatening Ottoman communications with the peninsula.
Liman von Sanders expresses the opinion that the German submarines on the spot were of no assistance to him, and that the British boats, in spite of their frequent raiding of the Sea of Marmora, did not seriously interfere with his water movements.
Large forces were engaged on either side in this battle, and the attack was prepared for by a comparatively speaking heavy bombardment of the Ottoman trenches; in this battleships and cruisers moored in Suvla Bay, in security from submarines, participated.
The shipbuilding yards developed greatly and war vessels of all types, including dreadnoughts and submarines, were constructed during the war.
Tirpitz advances two contentions; first, that he would have sent the navy into decisive action at an earlier stage of the war; secondly, that he would have made an earlier and more ruthless use of the German U-boats; but his opponents traverse both these claims, and in particular assert that as Secretary of State he had neglected the construction of submarines, so that Germany entered the war with a comparatively small supply of these vessels.
Mines, torpedoes and submarines were all employed, and with the "Monitor" may fairly be said to have begun the application of mechanical science to the uses of naval war.
This agreement does not include any armaments for the purpose of protecting the shore and ports, and each party will be at liberty to acquire any vessels (maquina flotante) intended for the protection thereof, such as submarines, &c.
In the present article, periscopes for land service and those forming part of the equipment of submarines will be described in turn.
In the very earliest submarines a cupola was built on the top of the hull, which was kept just above the surface when it was desired to take observations.
To re- duce resistance, these cupolas were made telescopic in the French submarines "Gymnote "and the " Gustave Zede, " but the arrangement proved unsatisfactory.
For purposes of torpedo attack the periscope is used as a range-finder to determine the distance the target is away, and also in connexion with tables to determine the correct time to fire the torpedo, allowing for the speed of the enemy, course, etc. Officers of submarines have devised various mechanical devices to avoid calculations, and these have been added to the periscope.
There the German torpedo craft and German submarines lay in a safe base only some 60 m.
The viaduct of the mole was to be blown up by two submarines, CI (Lt.
Ostend, though the width of the entrance was reduced probably to 300 ft., was not closed, and though the ships sunk in Zeebrugge must have caused great inconvenience and delay it may be doubted whether they actually stopped the passage of submarines for more than a month.
Between the stern of the "Iphigenia" and the pier, and by dredging along the edge and fixing up warping bollards it was made possible to warp submarines in and out at high water.
Twelve other vessels, including 2 submarines, were under construction.
In reply to a note addressed by England to neutrals, asking that all belligerent submarines be excluded from neutral waters, he said that the nature of each submarine must govern the decision.