Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.
The compounds of mercury attracted considerable attention, mainly on account of their medicinal properties; mercuric oxide and corrosive sublimate were known to pseudo-Geber, and the nitrate and basic sulphate to " Basil Valentine."
Volcanic sulphur usually occurs as a sublimate around or on the walls of the vents, and has probably been formed in many cases by the interaction of sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
Corrosive sublimate in an acid solution is the best disinfectant, but sulphuric acid, 1 in 250, is efficient and cheaper.
Each of corrosive sublimate and carbolic acid in i gallon of methylated spirits.
On removing, washing and gently drying the metal and heating it in a glass tube, a white crystalline sublimate is formed on the cool part of the tube; under the same conditions antimony does not produce a crystalline sublimate.
The use of corrosive sublimate is not, however, recommended, as it forms on drying a fine powder which when the plants are handled will rub off and, being carried into the air, may prove injurious to workers.
Uranous chloride, UC14, was first prepared by Peligot by heating an intimate mixture of the green oxide and charcoal to redness in a current of dry chlorine; it is obtained as sublimate of black-green metallic-looking octahedra.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
This condition is not so frequently seen in the more highly differentiated cells, but may follow necrosis of secreting cells, as is found in the kidney, in corrosive sublimate poisoning and in chronic nephritis.
The tetrachloride, OsC1 41 is obtained as a dark red sublimate (mixed with the dichloride) when osmium is l}eated in dry chlorine.
Zirconium chloride, ZrC1 4, is prepared as a white sublimate by igniting a mixture of zirconia and charcoal in a current of chlorine.
Kyan's process, patented in 1832, consists in impregnating the timber with corrosive sublimate which, acting on the albumen in the wood, converts it into an indecomposable substance.
The hexachloride, WC1 6, is obtained by heating the metal in a current of dry chlorine in the absence of oxygen or moisture, otherwise some oxychloride is formed; a sublimate of dark violet crystals appear at first, but as the hexachloride increases in quantity it collects as a very dark red liquid.
The dioxychloride, WO 2 C12, is obtained as a light lemon-yellow sublimate on passing chlorine over the brown oxide.
Phosphorus tetroxide, P204, was obtained by Thorpe and Tutton by heating the product of the limited combustion of phosphorus in vacuo as a sublimate of transparent, highly lustrous, orthorhombic crystals.
The sublimate varies in colour from yellow to red, according to the intimacy of the combination of the ingredients; and by varying the relative quantities used many intermediate tones may be obtained.