In the present indicative and subjunctive many verbs in it takethe inchoative form already described, by lengthening the radical in the three persons of the singular and in the third person of the plural by means of the syllable esc (isc).
The most recent works bearing on Old Latin syntax, are Sjogren, Zum Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen (1906); Lindsay, Syntax of Plautus (1907); Sonnenschein, The Unity of the Latin Subjunctive (1910).
The future perfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive, on the other hand, would seem to be accented regularly: faldremos, faldsernos.
In fact, however, the Homeric subjunctive is almost quite " regular," though the rule which it obeys is a different one from the Attic. It may be summed up by saying that the subjunctive takes or when the indicative has o or and not otherwise.
Agrohir has the present indicative agraesch, agraheixes, agraheix, agraheixen, the present subjunctive agraesca, -as, -a, -an (or more usually now agraesqui, -is, -i, -in).
The same i of the present subjunctive, whatever may be its origin, is still found in the imperfect: anus, -essis, -es, -essium, &c.
Of the imperfect (canidbamos, canidbais), of the pluperfect indicative (cantdramos, cantdrais), and of the imperfect subjunctive (cantdsemos, cantdseis); possibly the impulse to this was given by the forms of future perfect canidremos, cantdreis (cantarlrnus, caniarilis).
The use of the subjunctive, without any conjunction, to express purpose, a clause prescribing a sacrifice to Ceres being followed immediately by pacr si ut propitia sit).
It will be evident that under this rule the perfect and first aorist subjunctive should always take a short vowel; and this accordingly is the case, with very few exceptions.
To the 1st in strong perfects (houve, pude, quiz, fez), while Castilian has hube and hubo; (2) the imperfects pun/ia, tin/ia, vinha (from por, ter and vir), which are accented on the radical in order to avoid the loss of the ii (ponIa would have made p0/a), and which substitute u and i for o and e in order to distinguish from the present subjunctive (ponha, tenha, yen/ia).
The verb has four tenses in the indicative, one in the subjunctive, and one in the imperative.