With the exception of a few subAlpine districts near Bergamo and Brescia, the great Lombard plain is decidedly unpastoral.
Slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
The Subalpine is the region which mainly determines the manner of life of the population of the Alps.
The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.
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The latter, on the other hand, assumes a greater importance and forms nearly the whole of the subalpine ranges.