Friction had soon arisen with New Netherland, although, owing to their common dislike of the English, the Swedes and the Dutch had maintained a formal friendship. In 1651, however, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, and more aggressive than his predecessors, built Fort Casimir, near what is now New Castle.
In retaliation, Stuyvesant, in 1655, with seven vessels and as many hundred men, recaptured the fort and also captured Fort Christina (Wilmington).
Peter Stuyvesant, his successor, arrived at Fort Amsterdam in May 1647.
Stuyvesant was, however, extremely arbitrary.
Stuyvesant conducted a successful expedition against the Swedes on the southern border of New Netherland in 1655; but he was powerless against the English.
The Dutch had long claimed the whole coast from Delaware Bay to Cape Cod, but by the treaty of Hartford (1650), negotiated between himself and the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, Stuyvesant agreed to a boundary which on the mainland roughly determined the existing boundary between New York and Connecticut and on Long Island extended southward from the west side of Oyster Bay to the Atlantic Ocean.
Nicolls won over the burgomaster of New Amsterdam and other prominent citizens by the favourable terms which he offered, and Stuyvesant was forced, without fighting, into a formal surrender on the 8th of September.
PETER STUYVESANT (1592-1672), Dutch colonial governor, was born in Scherpenzeel, in southern Friesland, in 1592, the son of a minister.
Stuyvesant also aroused opposition through his efforts to increase the revenues of the.
With a force of seven hundred men he sailed into the Delaware in 1655, captured Fort Casimir (Newcastle) - which Stuyvesant had built in 1651 and which the Swedes had taken in 1654 - and overthrew the Swedish authority in that region.
Misled by instructions from Holland that the expedition was directed wholly against New England, Stuyvesant made no preparation for defence until just before the fleet arrived.
As the burghers refused to support him, Stuyvesant was compelled to surrender the town and fort on the 8th of September.
See Bayard Tuckerman, Peter Stuyvesant (New York, 1893), in the "Makers of America" Series; and Mrs Schuyler Van Rensselaer, History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth Century (2 vols., New York, 1909).
In 1658 a stockade was built by the order of Governor Peter Stuyvesant, and from this event the actual founding of the city is generally dated.
But the Swedish rule was short-lived, as in 1655 the settlements surrendered to Peter Stuyvesant and passed under the control of the Dutch.
In this respect he was assisted by his friendship with Mr Stuyvesant Fish, who, on becoming vice-president of the Illinois Central in 1883, brought Harriman upon the directorate, and in 1887, being then president, made Harriman vice-president; twenty years later it was Harriman who dominated the finance of the Illinois Central, and Fish, having become his opponent, was dropped from the board.