See Sturm, Chronik der Stadt Weissenfels (Weissenfels, 1846); and Gerhardt, Geschichte der Stadt Weissenfels (Weissenfels, 1907).
When Guillaume du Bellay went to Piedmont, Jean was put in charge of the negotiations with the German Protestants, principally through the humanist Johann Sturm and the historian Johann Sleidan.
At the same period he founded the abbey of Fulda, as a centre for German monastic culture, placing it under the Bavarian Sturm, whose biography gives us so many picturesque glimpses of the time, and making its rule stricter than the Benedictine.
Under the influence of this reading he now finally broke with classicism and became one of the leaders of the new Sturm and Drang movement.
Before long the school connected with the monastery became famous, and among its earlier scholars it numbered Sturm, abbot of Fulda, and Megingod, second bishop of Wiirzburg.
His parents, having embraced the principles of the Reformation, emigrated to the Palatinate in 1578, in order to enjoy freedom to profess their new faith, and they sent their son to be educated at Strassburg under Johann Sturm (1507-1589).
See Sturm, The Almanack of the Hungarian Diet (1905-1910), art.
Sturm, in making the imitation of the Latin classics the main aim of instruction.
Precepts of style, and models taken from the best Latin authors, were the means whereby a remarkable skill in the imitation of Cicero was attained at Strassburg during the forty-four years of the headmastership of Johannes von Sturm (d.
2 Of this the brothers Sturm in 1841 published at Nuremberg a German version.
The strict military discipline of the school lay heavily on Schiller, and intensified the spirit of rebellion, which, nurtured on Rousseau and the writers of the Sturm and Drang, burst out in the young poet's first tragedy; but such a school-life had for a poet of Schiller's temperament advantages which he might not have known had he followed his own inclinations; and it afforded him glimpses of court life invaluable for his later work as a dramatist.
With Gotz von Berlichingen, Shakespeare's art first triumphed on the German stage, and the literary movement known as Sturm and Drang was inaugurated.
While Gotz inaugurated the manlier side of the Sturm and Drang literature, Werther was responsible for its sentimental excesses.
A lighter vein is to be observed in various dramatic satires written at this time, such as Cotter, Helden and Wieland (1774), Hanswursts Hochzeit, Fastnachtsspiel vorn Pater Brey, Satyros, and in the Singspiele, Erwin and Elmire (1775) and Claudine von Villa Bella (1776); while in the Frankfurter Gelehrte Anzeiger (1772- 1773), Goethe drove home the principles of the new movement of Sturm and Drang in terse and pointed criticism.
Thanks to a manuscript copy of the play in its earliest form - discovered as recently as 1887 - we are now able to distinguish how much of this tragedy was the immediate product of the Sturm and Drang, and to understand the intentions with which the young poet began his masterpiece.
Goethe's hero changed with the author's riper experience and with his new conceptions of man's place and duties in the world, but the Gretchen tragedy was taken over into the finished poem, practically unaltered, from the earliest Faust of the Sturm and Drang.
But Egmont depends for its interest almost solely on two characters, Egmont himself and Klarchen, Gretchen's counterpart; regarded as a drama, it demonstrates the futility of that defiance of convention and rules with which the Sturm and Drang set out.
In Weimar he had felt that he was no longer in sympathy with the Sturm and Drang, but it was Italy which first taught him clearly what might take the place of that movement in Germanoetry.
But Germany had not advanced; in 1788 his countrymen were still under the influence of that Sturm and Drang from which the poet had fled.
With regard to painting and sculpture, however, Goethe felt that a protest was necessary, if the insidious ideas propounded in works like Wackenroder's Herzensergiessungen were not to do irreparable harm, by bringing back the confusion of the Sturm and Drang; and, as a rejoinder to the Romantic theories, Goethe, in conjunction with his friend Heinrich Meyer (1760-1832), published from 1798 to 1800 an art review, Die Propyliien.
With the aid of the vast body of Faust literature which has sprung up in recent years, and the many new documents bearing on its history above all, the so-called Urfaust, to which reference has already been made - we are able now to ascribe to their various periods the component parts of the work; it is possible to discriminate between the Sturm and Drang hero of the opening scenes and of the Gretchen tragedy - the contemporary of Gotz and Clavigo and the superimposed Faust of calmer moral and intellectual ideals - a Faust who corresponds to Hermann and Wilhelm Meister.
Thus the elements of which Faust is composed were even more difficult to blend than were those of Wilhelm Meister; but the very want of uniformity is one source of the perennial fascination of the tragedy, and has made it in a peculiar degree the national poem of the German people, the mirror which reflects the national life and poetry from the outburst of Sturm and Drang to the well-weighed and tranquil classicism of Goethe's old age.
Weissenfels, Goethe in Sturm and Drang, vol.
Founded in 744 at the instigation of St Boniface by his pupil Sturm, who was the first abbot, it became the centre of a great missionary work.
There is no positive evidence of any measures taken or threatened against him; but it is certain that he passed nearly the whole of 1546 and part of 1547 at Metz in Lorraine as physician to the town at the salary of 120 livres, and Sturm speaks of him as having been "cast out of France by the times" (with the exclamation c56 TLilv xpovwv) in a contemporary letter, and says that he himself in another letter gives a doleful account of his pecuniary affairs and asks for assistance.