Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History (3rd ed., Oxford, 1900).
Justiciarius meant simply "judge," and was originally applied, as Stubbs points out (Const.
Thus from a document of uncertain date, possibly about the time of Alfred the Great, and translated by Stubbs (Select Charters) as "Of people's ranks and laws," we learn:--"And if a ceorl throve, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bellhouse and burh-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth of thegn-right worthy."
But, like all other words of the kind, the word thegn was slowly changing its meaning, and, as Stubbs says (Const.
Modern historians, although less rhetorical, speak in the highest terms of the importance of Magna Carta, the view of most of them being summed up in the words of Dr Stubbs: "The whole of the constitutional history of England is a commentary on this charter."
Stubbs in his Select Charters (1895).
Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (1897); Sir F.
The details of the case will be found in Wilkins, Concilia, in Mansi, Concilia, under the various councils named, and in Haddan & Stubbs, Councils and Eccl.
No bishop or archdeacon " shall any longer hold pleas in the Hundred concerning episcopal law nor draw a cause which concerns the rule of such to the judgment of men of the world " (Stubbs, Select Charters, part iii.).
As bishop Stubbs says (Report of Eccl.
(n) Officials, even of bishops and metropolitans, need not be in holy orders, though Bishop Stubbs in his paper in the Report of the Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts seems to say so.
Stubbs, Select Charters (Oxford, 1895); A.
Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents (Oxford, 1869); A.
Stubbs, Constitutional History; Sir J.
And his son were very unfriendly, and there existed between them the jealousy which Stubbs calls the "incurable bane of royalty."
After speaking of Ranulf's unique position in the kingdom, which "fitted him for the part of a leader of opposition to royal or ministerial tyranny," Stubbs sums up his character in these words: "On more than one occasion he refused his consent to taxation which he deemed unjust; his jealousy of Hubert (de Burgh), although it led him to join the foreign party in 1223, did not prevent him from more than once interposing to prevent his overthrow.
The contrary opinion, that the two assemblies were distinct, is held, although with characteristic caution, by Stubbs (Const.
Ine legislates "with the counsel and with the teaching of Cenred my father and of Hedde my bishop, and of Eorcenwald my bishop, with all my ealdormen and the most distinguished witan of my people" (Stubbs, Select Charters), and Alfred issues his code of laws "with the counsel and consent of his witan."
966 contained the king's mother, two archbishops, seven bishops, five ealdormen and fifteen ministri; and this is a fair specimen of the usual proportion" (Stubbs, Const.
There was hardly any regular succession to the throne; and Jerusalem, as Stubbs writes, "suffered from the weakness of hereditary right and the jealousies of the elective system" at one and the same time.
In 1489 it was acquired by Venice, which claimed the island on the death of the last king, having adopted his widow (a Venetian lady named Catarina Cornaro) as a daughter of the republic. On the history of Cyprus, see Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History, 156-208.
Stubbs, Councils and Eccles.
Yanoski, De l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon's portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski's part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthumously published in 1860; it is no more than a slight sketch); Benjamin Gubrard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874-1878).
Stubbs, Rolls Series, 1887-1889); Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum (ed.
In the main this conclusion substantiates the verdict of Stubbs, who has published the Vita et mors in his Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I.
Stubbs, "Rolls" series, 2 vols., 1887-1889); William of Jumieges' Historia Normannorum (ed.
Paul's which have been edited by Bishop Stubbs, are closely related to the work of Murimuth, but probably not from his pen.
WILLIAM STUBBS (1825-1901), English historian and bishop of Oxford, son of William Morley Stubbs, solicitor, of Knaresborough, Yorkshire, was born on the 21st of June 1825, and was educated at the Ripon grammar school and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1848, obtaining a first-class in classics and a third in mathematics.
Until Bishop Stubbs found it necessary to devote all his time to his episcopal duties, he pursued historical study with unremitting diligence.
Bishop Stubbs belongs to the front rank of historical scholars both as an author and a critic. Among Englishmen at least he excels all others as a master of every department of the historian's work, from the discovery of materials to the elaboration of wellfounded theories and literary production.
The learning and insight which this book displays are unquestionable: it is well planned, and its contents are well arranged; but constitutional history is not a lively subject, and, in spite of the skill with which Stubbs handled it and the genius displayed in his narrative 04 chapters, the book does not afford an adequate idea of his place as a writer of history.
Both in England and America Bishop Stubbs was universally acknowledged as the head of all English historical scholars, and no English historian of his time was held in equal honour in European countries.
Stubbs was a High Churchman whose doctrines and practice were grounded on learning and a veneration for antiquity.
See Letters of William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford, ed.
Bishop Stubbs in his Introduction to the Historical Works of Ralph de Diceto writes: " St Paul's stood at the head of the religious life of London, and by its side, at some considerable interval, however, St Martin's le Grand (1056), St Bartholomew's, Smithfield (1123) and the great and ancient foundation of Trinity, Aldgate " (1 r08).
Stubbs denounced suburban gardens and garden houses in his Anatomy of Abuses, and another writer observed " how happy were cities if they had no suburbs."
The word " port " in the title "portreeve " does not indicate the Port of London as might naturally be supposed, for Stubbs has pointed out that it is porta not por us, and "although used for the city generally, seems to refer to it specially in its character of a Mart or City of Merchants."
Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."
Stubbs writes: " The governing body of London in the 13th century was composed of the mayor, twenty-five aldermen of the wards and two sheriffs."
Stubbs' Introduction, II.
Earle, Land Charters (Oxford, 1888); Thorpe, Diplomatarium Anglicanum; Facsimiles of Ancient Charters, edited by the Ordnance Survey and by the British Museum; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils of Great Britain, i.-iii.
Palgrave, History of the English Commonwealth; Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, i.; Pollock and Maitland, history of English Law, i.; H.
Stubbs, Rolls Series); William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum (ed.
Stubbs (London, 1874) Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited by C. Plummer (Oxford, 1892-1899).
Stubbs, Constitutional History; and H.
Excommunication became a common penalty applied in numberless cases (see the Penitential of Archbishop Theodosius: Haddan and Stubbs, Councils and Documents, iii.
Stubbs, 1887-1889); Simeon of Durham, s.a.
Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., London, 1874-1878); A.
In November of this year Stratford became chancellor, and for the next ten years he was actively engaged in public business, being the king's most prominent adviser and being politically, says Stubbs, the "head of the Lancastrian or constitutional party."