The Poisons and Pharmacy Act of 1908 extended the schedule of poisons instituted by the act of 1868, and it now includes arsenic, aconite, aconitine and their preparations; all poisonous vegetable alkaloids, and their salts and poisonous derivatives; atropine and its salts and their preparations; belladonna and all preparations or admixtures (except belladonna plasters) containing 0.1% or more of belladonna alkaloid; cantharides and its poisonous derivatives; any preparation or admixture of coca-leaves containing 0.1% or more of coca alkaloids; corrosive sublimate; cyanide of potassium and all poisonous cyanides and their preparations; tartar emetic, nux vomica, and all preparations or admixtures containing 0.2% or more of strychnine; opium and all preparations and admixtures containing 1% or more of morphine; picro-toxine; prussic acid and all preparations and admixtures containing o i% or more of prussic acid; savin and its oil, and all preparations or admixtures containing savin or its oil.
Alcohol, strychnine and warmth must also be employed.
Of strychnine in each fluid drachm.
No certain cure has been or is likely to be discovered for their poison, but in less serious cases strychnine has been used with advantage.
Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.
As in strychnine poisoning, the patient is conscious and clear-minded to the last.
A species of Acarus is recorded as infesting a store of powdered strychnine and feeding on that drug, so poisonous to larger organisms. Reference to literature (40).
It is very similar to strychnine, both chemically and physiologically.
Fraser proved that by substitution of molecules in certain compounds a stimulant could be converted into a sedative action; thus by the addition of the methyl group CH 2 to the molecule of strychnine, thebaine or brucine, the tetanizing action of these drugs is converted into a paralysing action.
Also (d +1) mannonic acid can be split into the d and 1 acids by fractional crystallization of the strychnine or brucine salts.
In this case stimulants and strychnine may be given, but they should be avoided until it is certain the bleeding has been properly controlled, as they tend to increase it.
Hypodermic injection of strychnine, in some cases as much as one to two grains (but not into a vein!), has in some cases had good results; but injection of ammonia, instead of doing any good, has disastrous sloughing results.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
(3) Quinoline group. The alkaloids of the quina-barks: quinine, &c.; the strychnos bases: strychnine, brucine; and the veratrum alkaloids: veratrine, cevadine, &c.
(The tetanus antitoxin should invariably be employed as well.) Sir Thomas Fraser differs from nearly all other authorities in regarding the drug as useless in cases of strychnine poisoning, and the question must be left open.
Strychnine crystallizes from alcohol in colourless prisms, which are practically insoluble in water, and with difficulty soluble in the common organic solvents.
Brucine closely resembles strychnine, and is its dimethoxy derivative.
The B.P. dose of strychnine is to gr.
A preparation is syrupus ferri phosphatis cum quinina et strychnine, containing gr.
Strychnine is incompatible with liquor arsenicalis and potassium iodide.
Applied externally strychnine is a powerful antiseptic, but its poisonous nature prevents it from being used for this purpose.
Brucine is a local anaesthetic. Strychnine enters the blood as such, being freely absorbed from mucous surfaces or when given hypodermically.
Internally strychnine acts as a bitter, increasing the secretion of gastric juice and the intestinal peristalsis, being a direct stimulant to the muscular coat; in this manner it has a purgative action.
Strychnine is eliminated by the kidneys as strychnine and strychnic acid.
Strychnine is eliminated by the kidneys as strychnine and strychnic acid.
Strychnine is chiefly used as a stimulant.
In pneumonia and other acute disease, where the patient is liable to sudden collapse, a hypodermic injection of strychnine will often save the patient's life.
In acute opium poisoning strychnine is very valuable.
In dyspnoea due to emphysema, phthisis and asthma, strychnine is of service, given internally in doses of i to 3 minims of the liquor.
The syrup of iron, quinine and strychnine is used as a tonic.
The symptoms of strychnine poisoning usually appear within twenty minutes of the ingestion of a poisonous dose, starting with an uneasy sensation, stiffness at the back of the neck, twitching of the muscles and a feeling of impending suffocation.
Strychnine and brucine very closely resemble each other in action, and under this heading curarine may also be included.
The effects of many of these toxins bear a close resemblance to the action of certain wellknown drugs, as in the case of tetanus toxin and strychnine, and are studied by the same methods of observation and research.
His methods were doubtless known also to the French physiologist Magendie, who improved upon them, and who in 1809 published a research on the Upas Tieute and other strychnine-containing plants, in which he showed that their effects were due to an action on the spinal cord.
The action of a drug may be called direct when it acts on any part to which it is immediately applied, or which it may reach through the blood; and indirect when one organ is affected secondarily to another, as, for instance, in strychnine poisoning when the muscles are violently contracted as the result of the action of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord.
Certain substances, notably digitalis, lead, mercury and strychnine, exhibit what is called a cumulative action - that is to say, when small quantities have been taken over a period of time, poisoning or an excessive action suddenly ensues.
Thus curare may stop strychnine convulsions by paralysing the terminations of motor nerves, and chloroform may exercise the same effect by abolishing the irritability of the spinal cord.
Dr., powdered strychnine 5 gr., quinine sulphate 130 gr., syrup 14 fl.
The trans-acid has been resolved by means of its strychnine salts into two optically active isomerides, both of which readily pass to 2' dihydrophthalic acid (A.
The conditions in which bromides are most frequently used are insomnia, epilepsy, whooping-cough, delirium tremens, asthma, migraine, laryngismus stridulus, the symptoms often attendant upon the climacteric in women, hysteria, neuralgia, certain nervous disorders of the heart, strychnine poisoning, nymphomania and spermatorrhoea.
Of the other alkaloids narceine is hypnotic, like morphine and codeine, whilst thebaine, papaverine and narcotine have an action which resembles that of strychnine, and is, generally speaking, undesirable or dangerous if at all well marked.
In infants especially opium acts markedly upon the spinal cord, and, just as strychnine is dangerous when given to young children, so opium, because of the strychnine-like alkaloid it contains, should never be administered, under any circumstances or in any dose, to children under one year of age.