The crucial example of this is what Richard Strauss has ingeniously called the "al fresco" treatment of instruments in large orchestral masses (Berlioz-Strauss, Instrumentationslehre, edition Peters)..
Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.
Yet, as Strauss and others have shown, Kant's mind betrayed a decided leaning at times to a more mechanical conception of organic forms as related by descent.
In Das neue Wissen and der neue Glaube (1873) he showed himself as vigorous an opponent of the materialism of Strauss as of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
The apologist must maintain (I) that Jesus of Nazareth is a real historical figure - a point well-nigh overlooked by Strauss, and denied by some modern advocates of a mythical theory; (2) that Jesus is knowable (not one " of whom we really know very little " - B.
Strauss-Durkheim, Anatomie comparee des animaux articulees (Paris, 1828).
Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
Mariano, Augusto Vera (Naples, 1887) and Strauss e Vera (Rome, 1874); Karl Rosenkranz, Hegel's Naturphilosophie and deren Bearbeitung durch A.
Strauss, the author of the Leben Jesu, and Bruno Bauer, who like Feuerbach himself had passed over from Hegelianism to a form of naturalism.
See Strauss, Geschichte der Stadt Munchen-Gladbach (1895); and G.
Strauss-Diirckheim in 1828 issued his great treatise on the cockchafer.
That stream is sure sooner or later to carry with it every reality that has been reached by side-issues and leaps; and of such things we have important cases in the works of Strauss and Debussy.
Strauss makes a steadily increasing use of avowedly irrational discords, in order to produce an emotionally apt physical sensation.
Debussy has this in common with Strauss, that he too regards harmonies as pure physical sensations; but he differs from Strauss firstly in systematically refusing to regard them as anything else, and secondly in his extreme sensibility to harshness.
The irrational discords of Strauss are also real phenomena in musical aesthetics.
Strauss as the typical "Philistine of culture"; his revolt against the fashion of pessimism to demand a new and more robust affirmation of life, not merely although, but because, it is painful.
His writings in their chronological order are as follows: Die Geburt der TragÃ¶die aus dem Geiste der Musik (1872); UnzeitgemÃsse Betrachtungen (1873-1876) (Strauss - Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie fÃ¼r das Leben - Schopenhauer als Erzieher - Richard Wagner in Bayreuth); Menschliches, Allzumenschliches (1876-1880); MorgenrÃ¶te (1881); Die frÃ¶hliche Wissenschaft (1882); Also sprach Zarathustra (1883-1884); Jenseits von Gut und BÃ¶se (1886); Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887); Der Fall Wagner (1888); GotzendÃmmerung (1888); Nietzsche contra Wagner, Der Antichrist, and Poems first appeared in the complete edition of his works, which also contains the notes for Wille our Macht, in which Nietzsche had intended to give a more systematic account of his doctrine (1895-1901).
- Modern views as to the classification and affinities of the Arachnida have been determined by the demonstration that Limulus and the extinct Eurypterines (Pterygotus, &c.) are Arachnida; that is to say, are identical in the structure and relation of so many important parts with Scorpio, whilst differing in those respects from other Arthropoda, that it is impossible to suppose that the identity is due to homoplasy or convergence, and the conclusion must be accepted that the resemblances arise from close genetic relationship. The view that Limulus, the king-crab, is an Arachnid was maintained as long ago as 182 9 by Strauss-Diirckheim (1), on the ground of its possession of an internal cartilaginous sternum - also possessed by the Arachnida (see figs.
Strauss-Diirckheim (as reported by MM.
As a rule, the Viennese are passionately fond of dancing; and the city of Strauss, J.
In the great division of the Hegelian school, he, in company with Michelet and others, formed the "centre," midway between Erdmann and Gabler on the one hand, and the "extreme left" represented by Strauss, Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer.
Strauss and F.
1866) was a reply to Strauss's Life of Jesus, and his criticism resulted in Strauss making numerous concessions in later works.
Strauss and die Theologie seiner Zeit (1876-1878, 2 vols.), and lives of Richard Rothe (2 vols.
Strauss: in his Leben Jesu (1833) he abandons the shifts and expedients by which the rationalists eliminated the miraculous from the Gospel stories, but he abandons also their historical character.
According to Strauss the fulfilments of prophecy in the New Testament arise from the Christians' belief that the Christian Messiah must have fulfilled the predictions of the prophets, and the miracles of Jesus in the New Testament either originate in the same way or are purely mythical embodiments of Christian doctrines.
Granted the philosophical basis, the criticism practised upon the New Testament by Paulus and Strauss follows almost automatically.
For the appearance of the critical writings of Strauss, Feuerbach and Bauer, and the evident disunion in the Hegelian school itself had alienated the sympathies of many from the then dominant philosophy.
Strauss, Charakteristiken and Kritiken (2nd ed., 1844); and cf.
Strauss has given an exhaustive analysis of the whole work in his book on Reimarus.
1877); Charles Voysey, Fragments from Reimarus (London, 1879) (a translation of the life of Reimarus by Strauss, with the second part of the seventh fragment, on the "Object of Jesus and his Disciples"); the Lives of Lessing by Danzel and G.
The theory is further developed in a later work (1835, the year in which David Strauss' Leben Jesu was published), Ober die sogenannte.n Pastoralbriefe.
He was also one of the founders of the Theologische Jahrbilcher, a periodical which acquired great importance as the exponent of the historical method of David Strauss and Christian Baur.
1875); Staat and Kirche (1873); Strauss in seinenLeben and Schriften (1874; Eng.
Strauss, Der alte and der neue Glaube (1872; Eng.
He did not appreciate as sufficiently as David Strauss and the Tubingen critics the difficulties which a natural theory has to surmount, nor did he support his conclusions by such elaborate discussions as they deemed necessary.
He was educated at the gymnasium of Stuttgart, and at the universities of Tubingen, Halle and Berlin, where he was successively influenced by Baur and Schmid, by Tholuck and Julius Muller, by Strauss and, above all, Neander.
STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH (1808-1874), German theologian and man of letters, was born at Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart, on the 27th of January 1808.
In 1825 Strauss passed from school to the university of Tubingen.
In 1837 Strauss replied to his critics (Streitschriften zur Verteidigung meiner Schrift fiber das Leben Jesu).
In the third edition of the work (1839), and in Zwei friedliche Bleitter, he made important concessions to his critics, which he withdrew, however, in the fourth edition (1840; translated into English by George Eliot, with Latin preface by Strauss, 1846).
Strauss resumed his literary activity by the publication of Der Romantiker auf dem Thron der Ciisaren, in which he drew a satirical parallel between Julian the Apostate and Frederick William IV.
It failed to produce an effect comparable with that of the first Life, but the replies to it were many, and Strauss answered them in his pamphlet Die Halben and die Ganzen (1865), directed specially against Schenkel and Hengstenberg.
From 1865 to 1872 Strauss resided in Darmstadt, and in 1870 published his lectures on Voltaire (9th ed., 1907).
Zeller, David Friedrich Strauss in seinem Leben and seinen Schriften (1874); A.
Strauss and die Theologie seiner Zeit (2 vols., 1876-1878); F.
Strauss (1899); K.
Strauss, sein Leben and seine Schriften (1901); and T.