The stratification, which may be concentric or excentric, appears to be due to a difference in density of the various layers.
The rocks are largely volcanic, the stratification being complex.
If, in addition to this horizontal stratification, the atmosphere varies similarly in vertical planes, then the object would be magnified both horizontally and vertically.
In the case of thin, flat organs such as leaves, the whole organ may be spread out in the plane of stratification, leaving its impress on the overlying and underlying layers.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
The sides of the hill are rocky, and remarkable for the regular stratification of the limestone, which gives the hill at a distance the appearance of being terraced.
The loess covers both the watersheds and the valleys.
The buildings here show a stratification analogous to that of the palace of Cnossus.
Wherever stratification is observed in these formations in Mississippi, it shows a dip west and south of 20 or 30 ft.
Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
- Diagram of the stratification of temperature and the vertical components of currents in high southern latitudes.
Its roof is a single flat stratum of limestone; its walls are well marked by lines of stratification; dripstone also partly covers the walls, fills a deep fissure at the end of the cave, and spreads over the floor, where it mingles with an ancient bed of ashes, forming an ash-breccia (mostly firm and solid) that encloses fragments of sandstone, flint spalls, flint implements, charcoal and bones.
2, which are driven across the stratification, or generally anywhere not in coal, are known as " stone drifts."
Thus, for example, there is the " Rock Garden," which should consist of variously grouped masses of large stones, those which are remarkable for being figured by water-wearing, or containing petrifactions or impressions, or showing something of natural stratification, being generally preferred.
St Kilda is probably the core of a Tertiary volcano, but, besides volcanic rocks, contains hills of sandstone in which the stratification is distinct.
The stratification is said to be like that of the settlements at Olympia, but undisturbed.
The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.
They rise into prominent pyramidal mountains, which, as the stratification is usually almost horizontal, present in their terraced sides a singular contrast to the neighbouring heights, composed of highly plicated crystalline schists.
We are aided in forming some estimate of the chronological sequence preceding the Mycenaean age, as suggested by the finds of the Heraeum, in the new distribution which Ddrpfeld has been led to make of the chronological stratification of Hissarlik.
Henry Wilde, in 1875, in depositing copper on iron printing-rollers, recognized this principle and rotated the rollers during electrolysis, thereby renewing the surfaces of metal and liquid in mutual contact, and imparting sufficient motion to the solution to prevent stratification; as an alternative he imparted motion to the electrolyte by means of propeller blades.
Conversely, if two fluids mix, it would seem that T'12 must exceed the mean of T 1 and T2; otherwise work would have to be expended to effect a close alternate stratification of the two bodies, such as we may suppose to constitute a first step in the process of mixture (Dupre, Theorie mecanique de la chaleur, p. 372; Kelvin, Popular Lectures, p. 53).
If the order of stratification differ from that of densities, we can show that each step of approximation to this order lowers the sum of tensions.
The zodiac of Denderah; the Savoyards who carved their pine-forests into toys; the naked Derar, horsed on an idea, charging a troop of Roman cavalry; the long, austere Pythagorean lustrum of silence; Napoleon on the deck of the "Bellerophon," observing the drill of the English soldiers; the Egyptian doctrine that every man has two pairs of eyes; Empedocles and his shoe; the horizontal stratification of the earth; a soft mushroom pushing its way through the hard ground, - all these allusions and a thousand more are found in the same volume.
Moreover, where stone implements are found they are, as a rule, very near, even actually on, the surface of the earth; nothing occurs resembling the regular stratification of Europe, and consequently no argument based on geological grounds is possible.