But Oswio and his son Ecgfrith greatly extended their territories towards the north and north-west, making themselves masters of the kingdoms of Strathclyde and Dalriada, as well as of a large part of the Pictish kingdom.
Hilda exercised great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her monastery.
STRATHCLYDE, the name given in the 9th and 10th centuries to the British (Welsh) kingdom, which from the 7th century onwards was probably confined to the basin of the Clyde, together with the adjacent coast districts, Ayrshire, &c., on the west of Scotland.
Strathclyde is also sometimes called Cumbria, or Cumberland, and the survival of the latter name on the English side of the border preserves the memory of a period when the territories of the northern Welsh were of much greater extent, though it is perhaps not certain that the race possessed political unity at that time.
Such notices as we have of the history of Strathclyde in the 7th and 8th centuries are preserved only in the chronicles of the surrounding nations and even these supply us with little more than an incomplete record of wars with the neighbouring Scots, Picts and Northumbrians.
Towards the middle of the 8th century Strathclyde was again threatened by an alliance between the Northumbrians and Picts, and in 750 the Northumbrian king Eadberht wrested from them a considerable part of their territories in the west including Kyle in Ayrshire.
At the end of the reign of Edward the Elder (925) the Britons of Strathclyde submitted to that king together with all the other princes of the north.
I n 945-4 6 Strathclyde was ravaged by King Edmund and given over to the Scottish king Malcolm I.
In the 11th century Strathclyde appears to have been finally incorporated in the Scottish kingdom, and the last time we hear of one of its kings is at the battle of Carham in 1018 when the British king Owen fought in alliance with Malcolm II.
The soldiers of Coroticus (Ceretic), a British king of Strathclyde, had in the course of a raid in Ireland killed a number of Christian neophytes on the very day of their baptism while still clad in white garments.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
On the west of the northern part of the English kingdom of Bernicia, severed from that by the Forest of Ettrick, and perhaps by the mysterious work of which traces remain in the " Catrail," was the Brython or Welsh kingdom of Strathclyde, which then included the territory and population, later anglicized, of Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and, south of the historic border, Cumberland and Westmoreland to the Derwent.
About the same date (573) the king of Cymric Strathclyde summoned, from exile in Wales, St Kentigern, the patron saint of Glasgow, who restored a Christianity almost or quite submerged in paganism, Celtic and English.
Edinburgh, a dubious etymology), and in that kingdom St Aidan, from Iona, erected the Columban churches under the auspices of Oswald, whose brother Oswin dominated Strathclyde and Pictland up to the Grampians; the English element, for the time, extending itself and anglicizing more and more of the Scotland that was to be.
He allies himself with Cymric Strathclyde, and by constant raids, and thanks to English weakness caused by Danish invasions, he extends his power over English Lothian.
A marriage of the daughter of Kenneth MacAlpine with the Welsh prince of Strathclyde gives Scotland a footing in that region; in short, Scotland slowly advances towards and even across the historic border.
Each submission " held not long," and the practical result was that (945) Malcolm acquired northern Strathclyde, " Cumberland, Galloway (?) and other districts," while another Malcolm (1018) took Lothian, the northern part of Northumbria, after winning a great battle at Carham on the Tweed.
In 945 Edmund ravaged Strathclyde, and entrusted it all to Malcolm, king of Scotland, "on condition that he should be his fellow-worker by sea and land," the object of this policy being apparently to detach the king of Scots from any possible confederacy such as had been formed in 937.
This war may have been due partly to Ã†thelfrith's persecution of Edwin, but it had a strategic importance in the separation of the North Welsh from the Strathclyde Britons.
During the 6th century the battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with Cornwall, and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, prevented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their sovereignty over Strathclyde; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient political claims of the Roman governors of the northern province of Britain.
ST KENTIGERN, or Mungo ("dear friend," a name given to him, according to Jocelyn, by St Servanus), a Briton of Strathclyde, called by the Goidels In Glaschu, " the Grey Hound," was, according to the legends preserved in the lives which remain, of royal descent.
Returning to Strathclyde Kentigern lived for some time at Glasgow, near a cemetery ascribed to St Ninian, and was eventually made bishop of that region by the king and clergy.
After the battle of Ardderyd in 573 in which King Rhydderch, leader of the Christian party in Strathclyde, was victorious, Kentigern was recalled.
ST NINIAN, a Briton, probably from Strathclyde, who was trained at Rome and founded a church at Whithorn on the west side of Wigtown Bay.
But this first conquest of the region beyond Humber had to be repeated over and over again; time after time the Danes rebelled and proclaimed a new king, aided sometimes by bands of their kinsmen from Ireland or Norway, sometimes by the Scots and Strathclyde Welsh.
The eight were Kenneth of Scotland, Malcolm of Strathclyde, Maccus of Man, and five Welsh kings.