The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.
This is the first indication of a conducting foliar strand or leaf bundle and forms an approach to leptom, though it is not so specialized as the leptom of the higher Phaeophyceae.
In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).
In other cases the epithem may be absent altogether, the tracheal strand debouching directly on the lacunae of the mesophyll.
At the age of eighteen, on the 25th of February 1639, he married Margaret, daughter of Lord Coventry, with whom he and his wife lived at Durham House in the Strand, and at Canonbury House in Islington.
The latter has a central strand consisting of files of large hydroids, separated from one another by very thin walls, each file being separated from its neighbor by stout, dark-brown walls.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
In the stalk of the sporogonium there is a similar strand, which is of course not in direct connection with, but continues the conduction of water from, the strand of the gametophytic axis.
Associated with the conducting parenchyma are frequently found hydroids identical in character with those of the central strand of the stem, and no doubt serving to conduct water to or from the leaf according as the latter is acting as a transpiring or a waterabsorbing organ.
In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
Each strand of spiral or annular first-formed tracheids is called a protoxylem strand, as distinct from the metaxylem or rest of the xylem, which consists of thick-walled tracheids, the pits of which are often scalariform.
When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch.
In the haplostelic ferns the leaf-trace appears as a single strand with a tendency to assume the shape of a horseshoe on cross-section, and this type is also found in the more primitive solenostelic types.
As a bundle is traced towards its blind termination in the mesophyll the peridesmic stereom first disappears, the sieve-tubes of the phloem are replaced by narrow elongated parenchyma cells, which soon die out, and the bundle ends with a strand of tracheids covered by the phloeotermic sheath.
The protoxylem and protophloem are developed a few cells from the inner and outer margins respectively of the desmogen strand, the desmogenic tissue left over giving rise to the segments of endocycle and pericycle capping the bundle.
St.) is directed downwards and tapers out into a thin, partly cartilaginous, strand, which originally extended to the inner corner of the articular portion of the mandible, but on its long way comes to grief, being squeezed in between the pterygoid and quadrate.
Though lying on a bare strand, the town is much frequented as a bathing place by Hamburgers.
The direct line of the thoroughfare is interrupted after Piccadilly Circus (the term " circus " is frequently applied to the open space - not necessarily round - at the junction of several roads), but is practically resumed in the Strand, with its hotels, shops and numerous theatres, and continued through the City in Fleet Street, the centre of the newspaper world, and Ludgate Hill, at the head of which is St Paul's Cathedral.
The survival of names of obliterated physical features or characteristics is illustrated in Section I.; but additional instances are found in the Strand, which originally ran close to the sloping bank of the Thames, and in Smithfield, now the central meat market, but for long the " smooth field " where a cattle and hay market was held, and the scene of tournaments and games, and also of executions.
5-7), as usually manufactured, consists of a core a in the centre of which is a strand of copper wires varying in weight for different cables between 70 and 650 lb to the nautical mile.
The hydrom strand has in most cases no connection with the leaves, but runs straight up the stem and spreads out below the sexual organs or the foot of the sporogonium.
In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
The central hydrom strand in the seta of the sporogonium of most mosses has already been alluded to.
In many Pteridophytes thi first leaf is formed very early, and the first vascular strand i!
Developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme.
In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves.
This is known as exogenous branch-formation In the root, on the other hand, the origin of branches is endogenous The cells of the pericycle, usually opposite a protoxylem strand divide tangentially and give rise to a new growing-point.
Sometimes in such cases the cambium ceases to be active round these bays and joins across the outside of the bay, where it resumes its normal activity, thus isolating a phtoem strand, or, as it is sometimes called, a phloem -island, in the midst of the xylem.
In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.
Like the chief armnerve, this strand runs through the lophophore, parallel indeed with the former except near the middle line, where it passes ventrally to the oesophagus.
The Strand was filled with noble mansions washed by the waters of the Thames, but the street, if street it could be called, was little used by pedestrians.
The Chapel Royal, Savoy, near the Strand, was rebuilt by Henry VII.
The chapel was used as the parish church of St Mary-le-Strand (1564-1717) and constituted a Chapel Royal in 1773; but there are no remains of the rest of the foundation.
Somerset House (1776-1786), a massive range of buildings by Sir William Chambers, surrounding a quadrangle, and having its front upon the Strand and back upon the Victoria Embankment, occupies the site of a palace founded by the protector Somerset, c. 1548.
The Royal Courts of Justice or Law Courts stand adjacent to the Inns of Court, facing the Strand at the point where a memorial marks the site of Old Temple Bar (1672), at the entrance to the City, removed in 1878 and later re-erected at Theobald's Park, near Cheshunt, Hertfordshire.
But this control does not meet the problem of actually lessening the number of vehicles in the main arteries of traffic. At such crossings as that of the Strand and Wellington Street, Ludgate Circus and south of the Thames, the Elephant and Castle, as also in the narrow streets of the City, congestion is often exceedingly severe, and is aggravated when any main street is under repair, and diversion of traffic through narrow side streets becomes necessary.
At the beginning of the 20th century several important local widenings of streets were put in hand, as for example between Sloane Street and Hyde Park Corner, in the Strand and at the Marble Arch (1908).
At the same period a great work was undertaken to meet the want of a proper central communication between north and south, namely, the construction of a broad thoroughfare, called Kingsway in honour of King Edward VII., from High Holborn opposite Southampton Row southward to the Strand, connexion with which is established at two points through a crescent named Aldwych.
General Hospitals with Medical Schools (all of which, with the exception of that of the Seamen's Hospital, are schools of London University): Charing Cross; Agar Street, Strand (1820).
The old-established collection of second-hand book-shops in Holywell Street was only abolished by the widening of the Strand, and a large proportion then removed to Charing Cross Road.
In the Strand, and more especially in Fleet Street and its offshoots, are found the offices of the majority of the most important daily newspapers and other journals.