Much damage was done to the tower, and the nave roof perished, for the fire reached practically every part of the building, though the stonework of the nave suffered comparatively little.
The smoke-laden atmosphere has been found not infrequently to exercise a deleterious effect upon the stonework of important buildings; and through the same cause the appearance of London as a whole is by some condemned as sombre.
For polished stonework the material was pecked by blows, ground with other stones, and smoothed with fine material.
The remarkable ruins of Palenque, Uxmal, Chichenitza, Lorillard, Ixinche, Tikal, Copan and Quirigua, with their carved stonework and astonishing architectural conceptions, show that they had attained a high degree of civilization.
High, built of rubble stone and mortar faced with square blocks of stone, the interior of the chambers rising into a sloping roof formed by courses of stonework gradually overlapping in a " false arch."
The architectural members of some of the treasure-houses have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on the site, as well as the terra-cotta plates that overlaid the stonework in some cases, and the pedimental figures, representing the battle of the gods and giants, from the treasure-house of the Megarians.
The Jesse window in the choir of Dorchester Abbey, Oxfordshire, is remarkable in that the tree forms the central mullion, and many of the figures are represented as statuettes on the branches of the upper tracery; other figures are in the stained glass; the whole gives a beautiful example of the combination of glass and carved stonework in one design.
The less permeable materials should be confined to the inner parts of the embankments; this is especially important in the case of the inner embankment in order that, when the water level falls, they may remain moist without becoming liable to slip. The inner slope should be protected from the action of waves by so-called " hand-pitching," consisting of roughlysquared stonework, bedded upon a layer of broken stone to prevent local disturbance of the embankment by action of the water between the joints of the larger stones.
The annual flooding now appears to be actually beneficial to the stonework, by removing the disintegrating salts and incrustations.
In some cases, as, for example, when a high earthen embankment crosses a gorge, and there is plenty of stone to be had, it is desirable to place the outer bank upon a toe or platform of rubble stonework, as in fig.