The Stoics were not agreed upon the question.
Cosmological materialism is that form of the doctrine in which the dominant motive is the formation of a comprehensive world-scheme: the Stoics and Epicureans were cosmological materialists.
God is the soul of the world, although the gods of popular belief are (at least by the later Stoics) respectfully if exoterically acknowledged.
In the great Roman Stoics - Seneca, Epictetus; less material for theism perhaps.
In the cosmology of the Stoics we have the germ of a monistic and pantheistic conception of evolution.
The necessity in the world's order is regarded by the Stoics as identical with the divine reason, and this idea is used as the basis of a teleological and optimistic view of nature.
- The Epicureans differed from the Stoics by adopting a purely mechanical view of the worldprocess.
Since a finite number of particles is only susceptible of finite transpositions, it must happen (he says), in an eternal duration that every possible order or position will be tried an infinite number of times, and hence this world is to be regarded (as the Stoics maintained) as an exact reproduction of previous worlds.
(3) Philosophical: Besides article STOICS, E.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
It was left to the Stoics to separate the wheat from the chaff, and to assign to the words "knowledge" and "nature" a saner and more comprehensive meaning.
Stoics and Socrates.
Yet the idealistic postulate of a summum bonum is in result optimistic, and this view predominated among the Stoics and the Neoplatonists.
His manner of life was ascetic; the sayings of the Sermon on the Mount and the practical maxims of the Stoics were his guiding stars.
Though this narrative is a mixture of truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge was not to be found in them.
It is explained by Cicero as being due to his theory that the scepticism of Carneades was merely a means of attacking the Stoics on their own ground.
Whilst the fathers agree with the Stoics of the 2nd century in representing slavery as an indifferent circumstance in the eye of religion and morality, the contempt for the class which the Stoics too often exhibited is in them replaced by a genuine sympathy.
Nothing else is known of his life, but it is clear that he was eminent amongst the Stoics of the period.
Like the earlier Stoics, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, he held that virtue may be taught.
Thus caught between two fires the casuists developed a highly ingenious method, not unlike that of the Roman Stoics, for eviscerating the substance of a rule while leaving its shadow carefully intact.
The Epicureans regarded fate as blind chance, while to the Stoics everything is subject to an absolute rational law.
The Stoics, for example, were more successful in criticizing the current creed than in explaining the underlying truth which they recognized in polytheism.
Among his friends were Tacitus and Suetonius, as well as Frontinus, Martial and Silius Italicus; and the Stoics, Musonius and Helvidius Priscus.
The Sophists and the Sceptics, Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics and the Epicureans took up the question, and from the time of Locke and Kant it has been prominent in modern philosophy.
The Stoics divided XoytK17 (logic) into rhetoric and dialectic, and from their time till the end of the middle ages dialectic was either synonymous with, or a part of, logic.
The term "school," however, has not the same meaning as when applied to the Academics or Peripatetics, the Stoics or Epicureans.
But their most immediate influence was upon the Stoics, whose founder, Zeno, studied under Stilpo.
See also Eleatic School; Cynics; Stoics; and, for the connexion between the Megarians and the Eretrians, Menedemus and Phaedo.
The " Word," or " Logos," is a term derived from Heracleitus of Ephesus and the Stoics, through the Alexandrian Jew Philo, but conceived here throughout as definitely personal.
From about 168 B.C. the head of the Pergamene school was Crates of Mallus, who (like the Stoics) was an adherent of the principle of " anomaly " in grammar, and was thus opposed to Aristarchus of Alexandria, the champion of " analogy."
He also opposed Aristarchus, and supported the Stoics, by insisting on an allegorical interpretation of Homer.
The Stoics are of more importance.
10) to be both internal, in the soul (6 g o-co ?6yos, Ev T 71 ikvx fj), and external, in language (6 g 5w X6yos): hence after Aristotle the Stoics distinguished X6yos EvScfiO€ros and 7rp040pcK6s.
The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
Reichel, Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics (1870 and 1880); S.
Porcius Cato sets forth the doctrine of the Stoics which is shown by Cicero to agree with that of Antiochus of Ascalon; in v.
Index Hercul., Greifswald, 1859), and that edited by Comparetti, which deals with the Stoics ("Papiro ercolanese inedito," in Rivista di fil.
See also STOICS and works quoted.
After Aristotle, the term was used by the Stoics and the school of Ramus for a proposition simply, and Bacon (Nov.
Some of the ancients connected her with the earth; Plato, followed by the Stoics, derived her name from tip, the air.
The stories of the Stoics, who sought to refute the views of Epicurus by an appeal to his alleged antecedents and habits, were no doubt in the main, as Diogenes Laertius says, the stories of maniacs.
To the Epicureans the elaborate logic of the Stoics was a superfluity.