In Cypripedium all three stigmas are functional, but in the great majority of orchids only the lateral pair form receptive surfaces (st, fig.
In Cypripedium two stamens are present, one on each side of the column instead of one only at the top, as in the group Monandreae, to which belong the remaining genera in which also only two stigmas are fertile.
A small group of Australian genera closely approach the order Juncaceae in having small crowded flowers with a scarious or membranous perianth; they include Xanthorrhoea (grass-tree or blackboy) and Kingia, arborescent plants with an erect woody stem crowned with a tuft of long stiff narrow leaves, from the centre of which rises a tall dense flower spike or a number of stalked flower-heads; this group has been included in Juncaceae, from which it is doubtfully distinguished only by the absence of the long twisted stigmas which characterize the true rushes.
Terminating the short annual shoot which bears a whorl of four or more leaves below the flower; in this and in some species of the nearly allied genus Trillium (chiefly temperate North America) the flowers have a fetid smell, which together with the dark purple of the ovary and stigmas and frequently also of the stamens and petals, attracts carrion-loving flies, which alight on the stigma and then climb the anthers and become dusted with pollen; the pollen is then carried to the stigmas of another flower.
Za`faran), a product manufactured from the dried stigmas and part of the style of the saffron crocus, a cultivated form of Crocus sativus; some of the wild forms (var.
The purple flower, which blooms late in autumn, is very similar to that of the common spring crocus, and the stigmas, which are protruded from the perianth, are of a characteristic orange-red colour.
This crocin is a red colouring matter, and it is surmised that the red colour of the stigmas is due to this reaction taking place in nature.
The stigmas and a part of the style are carefully picked out, and the wet saffron is then scattered on sheets of paper to a depth of 2 or 3 in.; over this a cloth is laid, and next a board with a heavy weight.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
Thus the anthers and stigmas in any given flower are often mature at different times; this condition, which is known as dichogamy and was first pointed out by Sprengel, may be so well marked that the stigma.
The flower is termed proterandrous or proterogynous according as anthers or stigmas mature first.
Flowers which are closed at the time of maturity of anthers and stigmas are termed cleistogamous.
In the simplest case the anthers are close to the stigmas, covering these with pollen when they open; this occurs in a number of small annual plants, also in Narcissus, Crocus, &c. In snowdrop and other pendulous flowers the anthers form a cone around the style and the pollen falls on to the underlying stigmas, or in erect flowers the pollen may fall on to the stigmas which lie directly beneath the opening anthers (e.g.
For instance, in many flowers the filaments are at first directed outwards so that self-pollination is not possible, but later incline towards the stigmas and pollinate them (e.g.
Numerous Saxifragaceae, Cruciferae and others), or the style, which first projects beyond the anthers, shortens later on so that the anthers come into contact with the stigmas (e.g.
The former, which is a somewhat less favourable method than the latter, is effected by air-currents, insect agency, the actual contact between stigmas and anthers in neighbouring flowers, where, as in the family Compositae, flowers are closely crowded, or by the fall of the pollen from a (From Darwin's by permission.) FIG.
Higher on to the stigmas of a lower flower.
Najas where the pollen grains are rather heavier than water, and sinking down are caught by the stigmas of the extremely simple female flowers.
In these the pollen floats on the surface and reaches the stigmas of the female flowers as in Callitriche, Ruppia, Zostera, Elodea.
4) the male flowers become detached and float on the surface of the water; the anthers are thus brought in contact with the stigmas of the female flowers.
- In these the pollen grains are smooth and light so as to be easily blown about, and are produced in great quantity; the stigmas are brushlike or feathery, and usually long and protruding so as readily to catch the pollen.
In small flowers which are crowded at the same level or in flat flowers in which the stigmas and anthers project but little, slugs or snails creeping over their surface may transfer to the stigma the pollen which clings to the slimy foot.
Pratense, each whorl of stamens ripens in turn, becoming erect and shedding their pollen; as the anthers wither the filaments bend outwards, and when all the anthers have diverged the stigmas become mature and ready for pollination.
Self-pollination is rendered possible, since the divisions of the stigma begin to separate before the outer stamens have shed all their pollen; the nearness of the stigmas to the dehiscing anthers favours self-pollination.
Fruit cut across showing the petals and the stigmas have three chambers containing been removed, leaving the seeds.
Resembling leaf-buds, and have protruding crimson stigmas; the minute inner bracts, by their enlargement, form the palmately lobed and cut involucre or husk of the nut.
The staminate contain 8 to 20 stamens which produce an enormous amount of dusty yellow pollen, some of which gets carried by wind to the protruding stigmas of the pistillate flowers.
Four varieties of poppy are distinguished - two with white flowers, large oval capsules without holes under their " combs " (stigmas) and bearing respectively yellow and white seed, and the other two having red or purple flowers and seeds of the same colour, one bearing small capsules, perforated at the top, and the other larger oval capsules not perforated.
7), but generally the anthers protrude first and discharge the greater part of their pollen before the stigmas appear.
Thus the species' of wheat are usually selffertilized, but cross-fertilization is possible since the glumes are open above, the stigmas project laterally, and the anthers empty only about one-third of their pollen in their own flower and the rest into the air.
Less absolute characters, but generally trustworthy and more easily observed, are the feathery stigmas, the always distichous arrangement of the glumes, the usual absence of more general bracts in the inflorescence, the split leaf-sheaths, and the hollow, cylindrical, jointed culms - some .or all of which are wanting in all Cyperaceae.