Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.
Speaking generally, stems grow upwards and roots downwards.
He considered, for instance, that stems, leaves, roots and flowers differ as they do because the plastic substances entering into their structure are diverse.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.
The fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) lives amongst the weeds of lakes and ponds and, like Desis, is quite at home beneath the water either swimming from spot to spot or crawling amongst the stems of aquatic plants.
How do you think it feels to live with the regret that stems from having done something beyond reparation to someone as beautiful as she is in this life?
They shelter in crevices of the bark of trees, in the dried stems of herbaceous plants, or among moss and fallen leaves on the ground.
It is the principal genus of the natural order of Monocotyledous Potamogetonaceae, and contains plants with slender branched stems, and submerged and translucent, or floating and opaque,.
The fructification appears in March and April, terminating in short unbranched stems. It is said to produce diarrhoea in such cattle as eat it.
In this species the fructification is conical or lanceolate, and is found in April on short, stout, unbranched stems which have large loose sheaths.
The tree breaks into thin stems close to the ground, and these branch again and again, the leaves being developed umbrellafashion on the outer branches.
Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.
Obelia forms numerous polyserial stems of the characteristic zigzag pattern growing up from a creeping basal stolon, and buds the medusa of the same name.
In addition to the stems bearing cups, there are found vesicles associated with them, which have been interpreted as gonothecae or as floats, that is to say, air-bladders, acting as hydrostatic organs for a floating polyp-colony.
IFor the histology of the comparatively simple but in many respects aberrant Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae), see BRYOPHYTA.] The stems of the other mosses resemble one another in their main histological features.
This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses.
Or many protoxylems. When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.
This is the case in the stems of must Phanerogams and of some Pteridophytes.
In some astelic L- ~ stems (Nymphaeaceae) the number of bundles is greatly increased and they are scattered throughout the ground tissue.
In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.
In some Pteridophyte stems the apical eel is wedge-shaped, in others prismatic; in the latter case segment~
Adventitious roots, arising from stems, usuall) take origin in the pericycle, but sometimes from other parts of th Conjunctive.
Stems. But in nearly all perennial Dicotyledons, in all dicotyledonous and gymnospermous trees and shrubs and in fossil Pteridophytes belonging to all the great groups, certain layers of cells remain meristematic among the permanent tissues, or after passing through a resting stage reacquire menstematic properties, and give rise to secondary tissues.
The in Stems. bundles of plants which form cambium are, on the contrary, called open.
In stems with open bundles the formation of cambium and secondary tissue may be confined to these, when it is sard to be entirely fascicular.
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
A peculiar modification of periderm is formed by the phellogen in the submerged organs (roots or stems) of many aquatic or marsh-loving plants.
This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.
In such stems and roots as increase in thickness there are other growing regions, which consist of cylindrical sheaths known as cambium layers or phellogens.
The young roots grow vertically downwards, the young stems vertically upwards.
But some stems grow parallel to the surface of the soil, while the branches both of stems and roots tend to grow at a definite angle to the main axis from which they come.
They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.
Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
Roots are often flattened, twisted and otherwise distorted by mechanical obstacles; stems by excess of food in rich soils, the attacks of minute parasites, overgrowth by climbing plants, &c. Leaves are especially apt to vary, and although the formation of crests, pitchers, puckers, &c., must be put down to the results of abnormal development, it is often difficult to draw the line between teratological and merely varietal phenomena.
The submerged stems are slender or hollow.
The stems are frequently characterized by aeration channels, which connect the aerial parts with the parts which are buried in practically airless mud or silt.
The stems of some xerophytes, e.g.
Switch plants, such as Retama Retam and broom (Cytisus scoparius), have reduced leaves and some assimilating tissue in their stems; and stomata occur in grooves on the stem.
Their leaves and, to some extent, their stems have much water-storing tissue and few intercellular spaces.
This primitive condition occurs only in the Odontornithes, Ratitae and Tinami; in all others this notch becomes converted into a foramen ischiadicum, through which pass the big stems of the ischiadic nerves and most of the bloodvessels of the hind-limb.
The obturatorius nerve invariably comes from the two main stems of the crural.
The vegetable-feeders attack leaves, herbaceous or woody stems and roots; frequently different parts of a plant are attacked in the two active stages of the life-history; the cockchafers, for example, eating leaves, and their grubs gnawing roots.
Beetles and larvae are frequently carnivorous in habit, hunting for small insects under stones, or pursuing the soft-skinned grubs of beetles and flies that bore in woody stems or succulent roots.
They feed by burrowing in the roots and stems of plants.
The larvae of the beautiful, elongate, metallic Donaciae live in the roots and stems of aquatic plants, obtaining thence both food and air.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
The trunk is usually flattened, and twisted as though composed of several stems united; the bark is smooth and light grey; and the leaves are in two rows, 2 to 3 in.
The nature of the integument and its hairy clothing in all spiders enables them to be plunged under water and withdrawn perfectly dry, and many species, even as large as the common English house-spider (Tegenaria), are so lightly built that they can run with speed over the surface of standing water, and this faculty has been perfected in genera like Pirata, Dolomedes and Triclaria, which are always found in the vicinity of lakes or on the edges of rivers and streams, readily taking to the water or running down the stems of water plants beneath its surface when pursued.
They are bulbous plants, the slender stems of which support themselves by tendril-like prolongations of the tips of some of the narrow generally lanceolate leaves.
It then often retains its vitality for a long time, apparently crawling as if it were itself a worm, a phenomenon which is at least partially explained by the extraordinary development of nervous tissue, equally distributed all through the walls of the proboscis, and either united into numerous longitudinal nerve-stems (Drepanophorus, Amphiporus) or spread out into a uniform and comparatively thick layer (Cerebratulus, sp.).
In Carinella, where the longitudinal nerve-stems are situated exteriorly to the muscular layers, this plexus, although present, is much less dense, and can more fitly be compared to a network with wide meshes.
It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.
In the Metanemertini, where the longitudinal stems lie inside the muscular body-wall, definite and metamerically placed nerve branches spring from them and divide dichotomously in the different tissues they innervate.
"Pull!" cried Dorothy, and as they did so the royal lady leaned toward them and the stems snapped and separated from her feet.
Near the end of May, the sand cherry (Cerasus pumila) adorned the sides of the path with its delicate flowers arranged in umbels cylindrically about its short stems, which last, in the fall, weighed down with good-sized and handsome cherries, fell over in wreaths like rays on every side.
I had often since seen its crumpled red velvety blossom supported by the stems of other plants without knowing it to be the same.
Already, by the first of September, I had seen two or three small maples turned scarlet across the pond, beneath where the white stems of three aspens diverged, at the point of a promontory, next the water.
Beneath the trees grew some kind of lush, wet, bushy vegetation with silver-lit leaves and stems here and there.