Especially noteworthy are the stelae (reliefs) representing scenes of leave-taking, which, though often of simple workmanship, are characterized by a touching dignity and restraint of feeling.
The god of Atha was a form of Horus (Apollo) as the sun-god; his most characteristic representation is as the disk of the sun with outspread wings, so often seen over the doors of shrines, at the top of stelae, &c. In the temple, where he is often figured as a falconheaded man, he is associated with Hathor of Dendera and the child Harsemteus.
Stelae, inscribed with the names of the kings, occurred in pairs in the royal tombs of the Ist Dynasty at Abydos, and pairs of small obelisks are said to have been found in private tombs of the IVth Dynasty.
Andaval and Bor; inscriptions incised on sculptured stelae of kings (?), probably from Tyana (Ekuzli Hissar).
Arslan-Tepe, near Ordasu (two hours from Malatia); large mound whence two sculptured stelae or wall-blocks with inscriptions in relief have been unearthed (now in Constantinople and the Louvre).
- Marash; several monuments (stelae, wall-blocks.
Kellekli, near Jerablus; two stelae, one with relief inscription.
The sculptures hitherto found consist of reliefs on rocks and on stelae, either honorific or funerary; reliefs on blocks forming parts of wall-dados; and a few figures more or less in the round, though most of these (e.g.
Sculptured stelae, honorific or funerary, all with pyramidal or slightly rounded upper ends, and showing a single regal or divine figure or two figures, have come to light at Bor, Marash, Sinjerli, Jerablus, Babylon, &c. These, like most of the rock-panels, are all marked as Hittite by accompanying pictographic inscriptions.
Besides these there are gravestones, stelae with human heads, fragments of limestone, architectural designs as well as bronze castings of camels, horses, mice, serpents, &c. (cf.
The Way of the Tombs at Athens was lined with stelae, some of them in memory of prominent citizens.
Antiquities, Sites, &c.The remains for archaeological investigation in Egypt may be roughly classified as material and literary: to the latter belong the texts on papyri and the inscriptions, to the former the sites of ancient towns with the temples, fortifications and houses; remains of roads, canals, quarries and other matters falling within the domain of ancient topography; the larger monuments, as obelisks, statues, stelae, &c.; and finally the small antiquitiesutensils, clothes, weapons, amulets, &c. Where moisture can reach the antiquities their preservation is no better in Egypt than it would have been in other countries; for this reason all the papyri in the Delta have perished unless they happen to have been charred by fire.
Border of the desert are the tombs of Deshgsha, Meir and Assiflt, and on the east bank those of Beni Hasan, the rockcut temple of Speos Artemidos, the tombs of El Bersha and Sheikh Said, the tonibs and stelae of El Amarna with the alabaster quarries of, Hanub in the desert behind them, and the tombs of Deir el Gebrgwi.
Outside the Nile valley on the west are temples- in the Great and Little Oases and the Oasis of Ammon: on the east quarries and stelae on the Hammamat road to the Red Sea, and mines and other remains at Wadi Maghara and SerbIt el Khgdim in the Sinai peninsula.
A late class of stelae, of which the be,st specimen has been published by Golenischeff, consists of spells of various kinds originally intended for the use of the living, but later employed for funerary purposes.
(g) Under the heading Miscellaneous we must mention a number of sources of great value: the grave-stones, or stelae, especially those from Abydos, which throw much light on funerary beliefs; the great Papyrus Harris, the longest of all papyri, which enumerates the gifts of Rameses III.
Records of the time that has elapsed between two regnal dates in the reigns of different kings are very helpful; thus stelae from the Serapeum recording the ages of the Apis bulls with the dates of their birth and death have fixed the chronology of the XXVIth Dynasty.
The latter warred in Palestine and in Nubia, and marked the south frontier of his kingdom by a statue and stelae at Semna beyond the Second Cataract.
The town was explored in 1912, and the cemetery from which the stelae came was found.
Raided south Palestine and Ethiopia, and at Semna beyond the second cataract set up a stela of conquest that in its expressions recalls the stelae of Sesostris in Herodotus: Sesostris may, therefore, be the highly magnified portrait of this Pharaoh.
The site, now Tell el Maskhuta, has yielded several important monuments, including the best preserved of the trilingual stelae of Darius which commemorated his work on the canal.