This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
In Cat harinea undulata the central h drom cylinder of the aerial stem is a loose tissue, its interstices being filled up with thin-walled, starchy parenchyma.
Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.
Associated with it are other tissues, consisting of parenchyma, mainly starchy, and in the Phanerogams particularly, of special stereom.
Metu starchy xylem-parenchyma, which, when the xylem is bulky, usually appear among the tracheids, the phloem also often being penetrated by similar bands of phloem-parenchyma.)
Care should be taken in collecting charae to secure, in the case of dioecious species, specimens of both forms, and also to get when possible the roots of those species on which the small granular starchy bodies or gemmae are found, as in C. fragifera.
Externally they are brown and marked with small transverse paler scars, and internally they present a dirty white resinous or starchy fracture.
The bark itself is used in tanning; and by the Samoiedes and Kamchatkans it is ground up and eaten on account of the starchy matter it contains.
This results from their containing starchy substances, and in some cases a small quantity of saccharine matter of the nature of mannite.
When it persists as a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cellulose, mucilage or proteid.
Indurata) has a starchy endosperm enclosed in a horny layer of varying thickness in the different varieties.
Indentata) has the starchy endosperm extending to the summit of the grain, with horny endosperm at the sides.
The top of the grain becomes indented, owing to the drying and shrinkage of the starchy matter; the character of the indented surface varies with the height and thickness of the horny endosperm.
In starchy sweet corn (var.
Amylea-saccharata) the grain has the external appearance of sweet corn, but examination shows the lower half to be starchy, the upper horny and translucent.
The starchy matter contained in its rhizome is associated with a fragrant oil, and it is used as hair-powder.
In true diabetes, which probably originates in the central nervous system, or in disease of the pancreas, as well as in the glycosuria common in gouty patients, sugar in every form should be entirely forbidden, and starchy food restricted to within narrow limits.
Where, as in some parts of northern Germany, the potato is grown for the purpose of manufacturing spirit great attention is necessarily paid to the quantitative analysis of the starchy and saccharine matters, which are found to vary much in particular varieties, irrespective of the conditions under which they are grown.
On the Continent, especially in Italy, the varieties having a white starchy bark, like those of Honduras and Guatemala, are preferred.
Sarsaparilla is grown to a small extent in Jamaica, and is occasionally exported thence to the London market in small quantities, but its orange colour and starchy bark are so different in appearance from the thin reddish-brown bark of the genuine drug, that it does not meet with a ready sale.
In Honduras sarsaparilla the roots are less wrinkled, and the bark is whiter and more starchy, than in the Jamaica kind.
The sieve-tubes differ, however, from the tracheids in being immediately associated, apparently constantly, not with starchy parenchyma, but with parenchymatous cells, containing particularly abundant proteid contents, which seem to have a function intimately connected with the conducting function of the sieve-tubes, and which we may call proteid-cells.