In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
16, p. 2546) uses a mixture of soda-lime, stannous chloride and sulphur for nitroand azo-compounds, and C. Arnold (Ber.
They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.
Stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid reduce the nitroparaffins to 0-alkyl hydroxylamines, amines and some ammonia being simultaneously produced (V.
(2) A solution of pure stannous chloride in very dilute hydrochloric acid is reduced with an electric current.
According to Stolba, beautiful crystals of pure tin can be obtained as follows: A platinum basin, coated over with wax or paraffin outside, except a small circle at the very lowest point, is placed on a plate of amalgamated zinc, lying on the bottom of a beaker, and is filled with a solution of pure stannous chloride.
Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.
One part of cream of tartar, two of alum and two of common salt are dissolved in boiling water, and the solution is boiled with granulated metallic tin (or, better, mixed with a little stannous chloride) to produce a tin solution; and into this the articles are put at a boiling heat.
Tin forms two well-marked series of salts, in one of which it is divalent, these salts being derived from stannous oxide, SnO, in the other it is tetravalent, this series being derived from stannic oxide, Sn02.
Stannous Oxide, SnO, is obtained in the hydrated form Sn20(OH)2 from a solution of stannous chloride by addition of sodium carbonate; it forms a white precipitate, which can be washed with air-free water and dried at 80° C. without much change by oxidation; if it be heated in carbon dioxide the black SnO remains.
Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.
Dry stannous oxide, if touched with a glowing body, catches fire and burns to stannic oxide, Sn02.
Stannous oxalate when heated by itself in a tube leaves stannous oxide.
A hydrated tin trioxide, Sn03, was obtained by Spring by adding barium dioxide to a solution of stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid; the solution is dialysed, and the colloidal solution is evaporated to form a white mass of 2Sn03 H20.
Stannous Chloride, SnC1 2, can only be obtained pure by heating pure tin in a current of pure dry hydrochloric acid gas.
Hence all tin crystals as kept in the laboratory give with water a turbid solution, which contains stannic in addition to stannous chloride.
The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
In opposition to stannous chloride, even sulphurous acid (solution) behaves as an oxidizing agent.
A strip of metallic zinc when placed in a solution of stannous chloride precipitates the tin in crystals and takes its place in the solution.
Stannous chloride is largely used in the laboratory as a reducing agent, in dyeing as a mordant.
Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.
Stannous bromide, SnBr 2, is a light yellow substance formed from tin and hydrobromic acid.
Stannous iodide, Sn12, forms yellow red needles, and is obtained from potassium iodide and stannous chloride.
Stannous sulphide, SnS, is obtained as a lead-grey mass by heating tin with sulphur, and as a brown precipitate by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannous solution; this is soluble in ammonium polysulphide, and dries to a black powder.
Stannous salt solutions yield a brown precipitate of SnS with sulphuretted hydrogen, which is insoluble in cold dilute acids and in real sulphide of ammonium, (NH 4) 2 S; but the yellow, or the colourless reagent on addition of sulphur, dissolves the precipitate as SnS 2 salt.
Only stannous salts (not stannic) give a precipitate of calomel in mercuric chloride solution.
A mixture of stannous and stannic chloride, when added to a sufficient quantity of solution of chloride of gold, gives an intensely purple precipitate of gold purple (purple of Cassius).
Hofmann), an alcoholic solution of stannous chloride (containing hydrochloric acid) (R.
In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.
Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 O 2, is said to be formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown precipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides to a solution of caustic potash.
A hydrated disulphide, B12S2.2H20, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of bismuth nitrate and stannous chloride.
Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.
Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
A reddish-brown solution is obtained from solutions of copper chloride, stannous chloride and an alkaline tartrate (Lottermoser, Anorganische Colloide, 1901).
Copper quadrantoxide, Cu 4 0, is an olive-green powder formed by mixing well-cooled solutions of copper sulphate and alkaline stannous chloride.
In the reduction by stannous chloride the solution of the ore in the flask is heated to boiling, and a strong solution of stannous chloride is added until the solution is completely decolorized; then 60 cc. of a solution of mercuric chloride (so grammes to the litre) are run in and the contents of the flask poured into a dish containing 600 cc. of water and 60 cc. of a solution containing 200 grammes of manganous sulphate, i litre of phosphoric acid (1.3 sp. gr.), 400 cc. of sulphuric acid, and 1600 cc. of water.
If, however, one of the para positions in the hydrazo compound is substituted, then either diphenyl derivatives or azo compounds are formed, or what is known as the semidine change takes place (P. Jacobson, Berichte, 1892, 2 5, p. 99 2; 1893, 26, p. 681; 1896, 29, p. 2680; Annalen, 1895, 287, p. 97; 1898, 3 0 3, p. 290) A para mono substituted hydrazo compound in the presence of a hydrochloric acid solution of stannous chloride gives either a para diphenyl derivative (the substituent group being eliminated), an ortho-semidine, a para-semidine, or a diphenyl base, whilst a decomposition with the formation of amines may also take place.
Stannous chloride reduces it to hexa-oxybenzene, and when boiled with water it yields croconic acid (dioxy-cyclo-pentene-trione).