Still using stamps and envelopes.
The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals, &c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow.
The indirect taxes comprise the charges on registration; stamps; customs; and a group of taxes specially described as indirect taxes.
The revenue from stamps includes as its chief items the returns from stamped paper, stamps on goods traffic, securities and share certificates and receipts and cheques..
Other principal items of revenue were: Registration 25 millions, stamps 74 millions, customs 18 millions, inland revenue on liquors 164 millions, receipts from the tobacco monopoly 18 millions, receipts from post office 104 millions.
The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
The brick-stamps found begin in the Flavian and end with the Hadrianic period.
The ship which brought stamps and stamped paper to Wilmington in 1766 was not permitted to land, and the stampmaster was compelled by the people to take an oath that he would not exercise the functions of his office.
German stamps were introduced from Berlin; the occupied towns were garrisoned by the Landwehr; and requisitions on a large scale were demanded, and paid for in cheques which, at the close of the war, were to be honoured by whichever side should stand in the unpleasant position of the conquered.
The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.
In the second were comprised tithes, mine-royalties, forests and domains, customs, sheep-tax, tobacco, salt, spirits, stamps and " various.
This last surtax, which produces about £T90,000 per annum, was specially affected to a loan, known as the " Tejhizat-i-'Askerieh of 1905," of £T2,640,000, by virtue of a contract between the government and the Deutsche Bank (April 17, ' It should be noted that the classification of the revenues included respectively under the " direct " and " indirect " categories has now been quite properly changed, the sheep-tax, tithes, mining royalties and forest royalties being comprised under " direct taxes "; stamps and registration duties are placed in a special category, and salt and tobacco under " monopolies."
Of these, commercial stamps are among the revenues specifically hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration, £T460,079; the others, consisting of legal stamps of various kinds, registration and transfer-duties, &c., are estimated to produce £ T6 53,373 forming a combined total of £T1,113,452.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
Indiarubber stereotypes are now extensively made use of as hand stamps, and attempts have been made to introduce them for press and machine printing.
In diameter, leaves the stamps in suspension in water, and passes through a series of troughs in which the heavier mineral is collected; this then passes through a series of washing operations, which leaves a mixture consisting chiefly of tinstone and arsenical pyrites, which is calcined and washed again, until finally black tin containing about 60 to 65% of metal is left.
Characteristic of the Rand is the fine white dust arising from the crushing of the ore, and, close to the batteries, the incessant din caused by the stamps employed in that operation.
In 18 99, 57 62 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446 tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the world's production.
In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.
The stamps are usually arranged in batteries of five; the order of working is usually I, 4, 2, 5, 3, but other arrangements, e.g.
When built in the neighbourhood of towns the nest is somewhat slovenly and untidy, being often composed of bits of dirty straw, pieces of paper and blackened moss; in one instance, near Glasgow, the author of the Birds of the West of Scotland found several postage-stamps thus employed.
This peculiar character alone stamps it as a distinguished fur, in addition to which it has the excellent advantage of being the most durable fur for carriage aprons, as well as the richest in colour.
A land revenue is derived from the sale of government lands, from quit rents and fees of transfer, &c. Judicial fees bring in a small amount, and the issue and sale of postage and revenue stamps have proved a fruitful source of income.
Facing the Mall on the south is the home of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, in which the United States paper money and postage stamps are made.
All tithes have been abolished, except those on cereals, carobs, silk cocoons, and, in the form of to% ad valorem export duties, those on cotton, linseed, aniseed and raisins (all other export duties and a fishing tax have been abolished); (4) sheep, goat, and pig tax; (5) an excise on wine, spirits and tobacco; (6) import duties; (7) stamps, court fees, royalties, licenses, &c.; (8) salt monopoly.
The chief sources of revenue were customs duties, taxes on land and industries, duties on tobacco and breadstuffs, the Lisbon octroi, receipts from national property, registration and stamps, &c. The heaviest expenditure (nearly £ 5,000,000) was incurred for the service of the consolidated debt; payments for the civil list, cortes, pensions, &c., amounted to more than £2,000,000, and the cost of public works to nearly as large a sum.