The Royal Dublin Society also keeps a Register of Thoroughbred Stallions under the horse-breeding scheme of 1892, which, like the British efforts, is now bearing fruit.
Horse-breeding is carried on chiefly in the Punjab, the United Provinces, and Baluchistan, and government keep a number of stallions in the various provinces.
Are stallions always skittish like that?
The Clydesdale, the Scottish breed named from the valley of the Clyde, is not quite so large as the Shire, the average height of stallions being about 16 hands 2 in.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares.
Haras or stallion stables containing in all over 3000 horses are established in twentytwo central towns, and annually send stallions, which are at the disposal of private individuals in return for a small fee, to various stations throughout the country.
The state helps to improve the breeds by placing choice stallions at the disposal of private breeders at a low tariff.
Through the commission the, money previously spent upon Queen's Plates is offered in the form of " King's Premiums " (to the number of twenty-eight in 1907) of L1 so each for thoroughbred stallions, on condition that each stallion winning a premium shall serve not less than fifty half-bred mares, if required.
The winning stallions are distributed in districts throughout Great Britain, and the use of these selected sires has resulted in a decided improvement in the quality of half-bred horses.
In 1905 it had 2224 horses, including 27 stallions and 422 blood mares.
Besides these there are several large depots of state stallions, which are hired out or sold at moderate rates; but buyers have to guarantee not to export them without permission of the government.
A better breed of horses is being obtained by more careful selection, and by crossing with Arab and English stallions imported by the government.
For the supply of ordnance, baggage, and transport mules a large number of donkey stallions have been imported by the government annually from various European and other sources.
There are provincial horse-breeding stations, where pony stallions, from 10 to 12 hands high, are bred for carrying burdens.
A committee exists " for the improvement of the breeds of Cyprus stock "; stallions of Arab blood have been imported, and prizes are offered for the best donkeys.
According to Giraldus Cambrensis, Roger de Bellesme, a follower of William I., afterwards created earl of Shrewsbury, imported some stallions from Spain into England; their produce was celebrated by Drayton the poet.
King John gave great encouragement to horse-breeding: one of his earliest efforts was to import a hundred Flemish stallions, and, having thus paved the way for improving the breed of agricultural horses, he set about acquiring a valuable stud for his own use.
By thoroughbred stallions and trotting mares, but it is not always so.
Excellent polo ponies are bred as first or second crosses by thoroughbred stallions on the mares of nearly all the varieties of ponies named.
Thoroughbred and pure bred hackney stallions are maintained in private studs and by agricultural associations throughout the Dominion, and animals for cavalry and mounted infantry remounts are produced in all the provinces including those of the North-West.
But the supply of suitable animals is not good, and their cost is large; so the breeding of donkey stallions has been undertaken at the Hissar farm in the Punjab.
Our information on the whole subject is but scanty down to the reign of Henry VII., who continued the enactment against the exportation of stallions, but relaxed it in the case of mares above two years old.
Prince George of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne, was himself a large horse-owner; and it was in a great measure owing to his intervention that so many valuable stallions were imported during her reign.
We append the pedigree of Blair Athol, winner of the Derby and St Leger in 1864, who, when subsequently sold by auction, fetched the then unprecedented sum of 12,000 guineas, as it contains, not only Stockwell (the emperor of stallions, as he has been termed), but Blink Bonny and Eleanor - in which latter animal are combined the blood of Eclipse, Herod, Matchem and Snap, - the mares that won the Derby in 1801 and 1857 respectively, as well as those queens of the stud, Eleanor's greatgranddaughter Pocahontas and Blink Bonny's dam Queen Mary.
The initial efforts began by securing the services of thoroughbred stallions for specified districts, by offering a limited number of " Queen's Premiums," of L200 each, to selected animals of four years old and upwards.
In very few words Nicholas bought seventeen picked stallions for six thousand rubles--to serve, as he said, as samples of his remounts.