Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboyna Bay are of chalk, and contain stalactite caves.
About a mile from the town is the entrance to the famous stalactite cavern of Adelsberg, the largest and most magnificent in Europe.
The Mitchelstown stalactite caverns, to m.
Each stalactite, stalagmite and pilaster was measured, numbered, and removed in sections.
Various volcanic rocks are the predominant formations, but beds of limestone also occur, giving rise to numerous stalactite grottoes all over the island.
On the shore of the lake is the stalactite cave of Jobitsinal, of great local celebrity; and in its depths, according to the popular legend, may still be discerned the stone image of a horse that belonged to Cortes.
There is a fountain in the middle of this hall, and the roof - a dome honeycombed with tiny cells, all different, and said to number 5000 - is a magnificent example of the so-called " stalactite vaulting " of the Moors.
The only remarkable feature in the island is a stalactite cavern on the south coast, which is reached by a narrow passage broken by two steep and dangerous descents which are accomplished by the aid of rope-ladders.
Of these the chief are Poole's Hole, a vast stalactite cave, about half a mile distant; Diamond Hill, which owes its name to the quartz crystals which are not uncommon in its rocks; and Chee Tor, a remarkable cliff, on the banks of the Wye, 300 ft.
In the neighbourhood is the celebrated Aggtelek or Baradla cavern, one of the largest and most remarkable stalactite grottos in Europe.
In these caverns there are numerous stalactite structures, which, from their curious and fantastic shapes, have received such names as the Image of the Virgin, the Mosaic Altar, &c. The principal parts are the Paradies with the finest stalactites, the Astronomical Tower and the Beinhaus.
The Mitchelstown limestone caves, exhibiting beautiful stalactite formations, are 6 m.
Above sea-level, and present some of the wildest scenery, are: the Kohlbach Valley, the Felka Valley, the Valley of Mengsdorf, the Javorina Valley, the Kotlina Valley, in which is the stalactite cavern of Bela, and the Bielka Valley.
Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations.
High (not all can be seen from any part, and probably some portions are still unexplored), shows many remarkable examples of stalactite formations and incrustations of dazzling brilliance.
Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.
Of this harbour is the Capo Caccia, with two stalactite grottos, the finest of which, the Grotta di Nettuno, is accessible only from the sea.
In height, its summit being decorated with stalactite vaults, one of the grandest features in Mahommedan architecture, only equalled by the magnificent portals of the mosques in India.
In the neighbourhood are the cave of Drach, containing several underground lakes, and the caves of Arta, one of the largest and finest groups of stalactite caverns in western Europe.
The principal characteristics of this second period are the magnificent portals, rising sometimes, as in the mosque of sultan Hasan, to 80 or 90 ft., with elaborate stalactite vaulting at the top, and the deep stalactite cornices which crown the summit of the building.
In the neighbourhood is a fine stalactite grotto, which often served as a place of refuge to the inhabitants in war time.
1357, and is celebrated for the grandeur of its porch and cornice and the delicate stalactite vaulting which adorns them.