In 1697 Georg Stahl admitted that fermentation and putrefaction were analogous processes, but that the former was a particular case of the latter.
Stahl founded his doctrine of "phlogiston."
His ideas and experiments on the nature of minerals and other substances are voluminously set forth in his Physica Subterranea (Frankfort, 1669); an edition of this, published at Leipzig in 1703, contains two supplements (Experimentum chymicum novum and Demonstratio Philosophica), proving the truth and possibility of transmuting metals, Experimentum novum ac curiosum de minera arenaria perpetua, the paper on timepieces already mentioned and also Specimen Becherianum, a summary of his doctrines by Stahl, who in the preface acknowledges indebtedness to him in the words Becheriana sunt quae profero.
Stahl (1660-1734) and Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738).
Stahl, however, there was a reversion to earlier ideas.
Georg Ernst Stahl, following in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Becher, as, for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which notion is itself of older date than Becher's terra pinguis), regarded all substances as capable of resolution into two components,.
At the hands of Stahl and his school, the phlogistic theory, by exhibiting a fundamental similarity between all processes of combustion and by its remarkable flexibility, came to be a general theory of chemical action.
Boyle rejected this terminology, which was only strictly applicable to intelligent beings; and he used the word " affinity " as had been previously done by Stahl and others.
In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S.
The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
Observed originally by Engelmann in bacteria, by Stahl in myxomycetes, and by Pfeffer in ferns, mosses, &c., it has now become recognized as a widespread phenomenon.
Here he became, as did his contemporary and rival Stahl, a popular and influential teacher, though their university had not the European importance of Leiden.
George Ernest Stahl (1660-1734) was for more than twenty years professor of medicine at Halle, and thus a colleague of Hoffmann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical system, though their systems had little or nothing in common.
Stahl was the author of the theory of" phlogiston "in chemistry, which in its day had great importance.
Stahl, as late as 1702, quoted the formation of brass as a case of the union of a metal with an earth into a metallic compound; but he subsequently adopted the view propounded by Kunckel in 1677, that "cadmia" is a metallic calx, and that it dyes the copper yellow by giving its metal up to it.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734) In the 19th century Prince Hohenlohe-WaldenburgSchillingsfiirst, canon of Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many adherents in England.
Theoretical conceptions were revived by Stahl, who held that acids were the fundamentals of all salts, and the erroneous idea that sulphuric acid was the principle of all acids.
This method of bringing gold into solution is mentioned by Stahl in his Observationes ChymicoPhysico-Medicae; he there remarks that Moses probably destroyed the golden calf by burning it with sulphur and alkali (Ex.
Its elementary nature was imperfectly understood; and the impure specimens obtained by the early chemists explain, in some measure, its confusion with tin, lead, antimony, zinc and other metals; in 1595 Andreas Libavius confused it with antimony, and in 1675 Nicolas Lemery with zinc. These obscurities began to be finally cleared up with the researches of Johann Heinrich Pott (1692-1777), a pupil of Stahl, published in his Exercitationes chemicae de Wismutho (1769), and of N.
Stahl and revived by F.
For animism in philosophy, Stahl, Theoria; Bouillier, Du Principe vital.
But, while it differs from both in denying the reality of body, it differs from the former in extending conscious soul not only to plants, as Stahl did, but to all Nature; and it differs from the latter in the different consequences drawn by materialism and idealism from this universal animism.
In Groen the doctrines of Guizot and Stahl found an eloquent exponent.
Rees in 1871 produced the sterile thallus of a Collema from its constituents; later Stahl did the same for three species.
The first exact knowledge as to the origin of the ascocarp was the work of Stahl on Collema in 1877.
See Wichmann, Geschichte Altonas (2 vols., Alt., 1896); Ehrenberg & Stahl, Altonas topographische Entwickelung (Alt., 1894).
Stahl, " Ueber einige Punckte in der Theorie der Capillarerscheinungen," Pogg.
Later followed men like Hengstenberg, Homeyer, Bethmann-Hollweg, Puchta, Stahl and Heffter; Schelling, Trendelenburg, Bopp, the brothers Grimm, Zumpt, Carl Richter; later still, Twesten and Dorner, Gneist and Hinschius; Langenbeck, Bardeleben, Virchow, Du-Bois Reymond; von Ranke, Curtius, Lipsius, Hofmann the chemist, Kiepert the geographer; Helmholtz, van't Hoff, Koch, E.