In 1492 it was captured by the insurgent peasants of North Holland, was re-taken by the duke of Saxony, the imperial stadholder, and deprived of its privileges.
Maurice of Nassau, William's second son, had indeed on his father's death been appointed captain and admiral-general of the Union, president of the Council of State, and stadholder of Holland and Zeeland, but he was as yet too young, only seventeen, to take a leading part in affairs.
At the side of Maurice, as a wise adviser, stood his cousin William Louis, stadholder of Friesland, a trained soldier and good commander in the field.
One of the immediate results of this triumph of his policy was the increase of Oldenbarneveldt's influence and authority in the government of the Republic. But though Maurice and his other opponents had reluctantly yielded to the advocate's skilful diplomacy and persuasive arguments, a soreness remained between the statesman and the stadholder which was destined never to be healed.
He and Spinola found themselves once more at the head of the armies in the field, but the health of the stadholder was undermined, and his military genius was under a cloud.
The far-sighted stadholder, despite popular opposition, by his powerful personal influence induced the States-General to grant the naval aid, and thus obtain the French alliance on which the safety of the republic depended.
In 1637 the stadholder was able to add to his fame as an invincible besieger of cities.
The year 1639, which had begun with abortive negotiations, and in which the activity of the stadholder had been much hampered by ill-health, was not to end, however, without a signal triumph of the Dutch arms, but it was to be on sea and not on land.
The death of the great stadholder did not, however, long delay the carrying out of the policy on which he had set his heart, of concluding a separate peace with Spain behind the back of France, notwithstanding the compact of 1635 uce of with that power.
Foremost among these was the great commercial capital, Amsterdam, whose rich burgher patriciate did not scruple on occasion to defy the authority of the States-General, the stadholder and even of the States of Holland themselves.
With the conclusion of the peace of Munster and the death of the veteran stadholder the struggle for predominance in the Union between the Orangefederalist and the Hollander States-rights parties was certain to be renewed.
The town councils, though most of them willing to receive William in his capacity as stadholder, declined to give a hearing to the commission.
Amsterdam refused absolutely to admit either stadholder or commission.
Six leading mem bers of the States of Holland were seized (30th of July 1650) and imprisoned in Loevenstein Castle, and troops under the command of William Frederick, stadholder of Fries land, were sent to surprise Amsterdam.
All the provinces, except Friesland and Groningen, which remained true to William Frederick of Nassau-Dietz, agreed to leave the office of stadholder vacant.
The act of Seclusion, which barred the young prince of Orange from holding the office of stadholder and of captaingeneral, had been one of the conditions on which Cromwell had insisted.
Acclamation William was elected stadholder, first of Zeeland, then of Holland, and was appointed captaingeneral of the Union (June 1672).
William, now supreme in the States, while on land struggling with chequered success against the superior forces of the French, strove by his diplomacy, and not in vain, to gain allies for the republic. The growing power of France caused alarm to her neighbours, and Sweden, Denmark, Spain and the emperor lent a willing ear to the persuasions of the stadholder and were ready to aid his efforts to curb the ambition of Louis.
In 1672 the stadholdership in five provinces had been made hereditary in the family of the prince of Orange, but William died childless, and the republican burgher party was strong enough to prevent the posts being filled up. William had wished that his cousin, Count John William Friso of Nassau, stadholder of Friesland and Gron- - ingen, should succeed him, but his extreme youth and the jealousy of Holland against a " Frisian " stood in the way of his election.
John William Friso had died IV young in 1711, leaving a posthumous son, William Charles Henry Friso, who was duly elected stadholder by the two provinces, Friesland and Groningen, which were always faithful to his family, and in 1722 he became also, though with very limited powers, stadholder of Gelderland.
By the conquest of Dutch Flanders Zeeland was threatened, and the states of that province, in which there were always many Orange partisans, elected (April 1747) William stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Zeeland.
Finally the States-General (May 4) appointed the prince, who was the first member of his family to be stadholder of all the seven provinces, captain and admiral-general of the Union, and a little later these offices were declared hereditary in both the male and female lines.
Every effort was made by the English to prevent the Dutch from joining the league, and in this they were assisted by the stadholder, but at last the States-General, though only by the bare majority of four provinces against three, determined to throw in their lot with the opponents of England.
It was they, and not the stadholder, who had been mainly responsible for the Provinces joining Party.
The stadholder and his family fled to England, and the disorganized remnants of the allied forces under the duke of York retreated into Germany.
Margaret came in person and was duly recognized as countess in Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut; but returned to her husband after appointing her second son (the eldest, Louis, renounced his rights) Duke William of Bavaria, as stadholder in her place.
In 1349 Margaret was induced to resign her sovereignty, and the stadholder became count under the title of William William V.
It was governed by a stadholder, and but small respect was shown for its chartered rights and privileges.
He was active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the acceptance of the countship of Holland and Zeeland by William (1584) On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Oldenbarneveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once elected stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Holland.
On the 31st of July 1618 the stadholder appeared at Utrecht, which had thrown in its lot with Holland, at the head of a body of troops, and at his command the local levies at once laid down their arms. His progress through the towns of Holland met with no opposition.
His appointment of William, prince of Orange, as stadholder of Holland PhilipIII.
The capture of Brill and of Flushing in 1572 by the Sea- William Beggars led to the submission of the greater part of of Orange Holland and Zeeland to the authority of the prince Stad- of Orange, who, as stadholder, summoned the states holder.
By the extensive powers with which the stadholder princes of Orange were invested; and the chief crises in the internal Contest history of the Dutch republic are to be found in between, the struggles for supremacy between two, in reality, ciples of National and Pro- the Prin- different principles of government.
The stadholder, Frederick Henry of Orange, ruled with well-nigh Frederick monarchical authority (1625-1647), but even he at the Henry height of his power and popularity had always to Prince of reckon with the opposition of the states of Holland Orange.
The office of stadholder John de was abolished, and John de Witt, the grand pensionary Witt.
The principle of provincial sovereignty was carried to its extreme point in the separate treaty concluded with Cromwell in 1654, in which the province of Holland agreed to exclude for ever the prince of Orange from the office of stadholder of Holland or captain-general of the union.