But even in its spurious condition the book had been recognized as remarkable and almost unique.
We have now to consider the so-called spurious bows which are sometimes seen at the inner edge of the primary and at the outer edge of the secondary bow.
The prime exponent of the spurious religion is Simon Magus.
The eighth now extant is really an incomplete treatise on logic. Some critics have rejected this book as spurious, since its matter is so different from that of the rest.
Among those in the same list which are wholly or in part spurious are: "No woman shall kiss her child on the Sabbath or fasting day," and "No one shall travel, cook victuals, make beds, sweep house, cut hair or shave on the Sabbath day."
For Zoroaster they sink to the rank of spurious deities, and in his eyes their priests and votaries are idolaters and heretics.
22-27): true inspiration was limited to the apostolic age, and universal acceptance by the church was required as a proof of apostolic authorship. Under the action of such principles apocryphal books tended to pass into the class of spurious and heretical writings.
The spurious bows he showed to consist of a series of dark and bright bands, whose distances from the principal bows vary with the diameters of the raindrops.
Many, no doubt, are spurious; but some are genuine, and a few perhaps cited in Aristotle's extant works.
Are spurious, their general view of the relation of Antiochus III.
On the critical questions raised by the spurious writings consult W.
The smaller the drops, the greater the distance; hence it is that the spurious bows are generally only observed near the summits of the bows, where the drops are smaller than at any lower altitude.
Besides The Didache and the Epistles of Clement it contains several spurious Ignatian epistles.
The so-called Donation of Constantine was long ago shown to be spurious, but the document is of very considerable antiquity and, in Dellinger's opinion, was forged in Rome between 752 and 777.
Those who believe the " Declaration " to be spurious argue that survivors remembered only one such document, that the Resolutions might easily be thought of as a declaration of independence, that Governor Martin in all probability had knowledge only of these and not of the alleged " Declaration," and that the dates of publication in the Raleigh and Charleston newspapers, and the politics of those papers, show that the Resolutions are authentic. In July 1905 there appeared in Collier's Weekly (New York) what purported to be a facsimile reproduction of a copy of the Cape Fear Mercury which was referred to by Governor Martin and which contained the " Declaration "; but this was proved a forgery.'
A dishonest means of satisfying the craving for relics was that of forging them, and how common this became can be gathered from the many complaints about spurious relics (Sulp. Sev.
Among the spurious works of Athanasius is printed a tract entitled About Virginity, ch.
His body was buried in the church 1 This letter, even if spurious as now suspected, is found in the 11th-century Leiden MS., and is therefore anterior to the first crusade.
In addition to these prominent features, there are sometimes to be seen a number of coloured bands, situated at or near the summits of the bows, close to the inner edge of the primary and the outer edge of the secondary bow; these are known as the spurious, supernumerary or complementary rainbows.
A spurious edition of his works having been issued, he himself produced a collection of twenty-two treatises, to which some time afterwards he added a second group of eighteen more.
Bohn's "British Classics" includes the novels (except the third part of Robinson Crusoe), The History of the Devil, The Storm, and a few political pamphlets, also the undoubtedly spurious Mother Ross.
Of these Adams accepts as certainly genuine the 2nd, 6th, 5th, 3rd (7 books), 4th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 12th, and as " pretty confidently acknowledged as genuine, although the evidence in their favour is not so strong," the 1st, Loth and 13th, and, in addition, (14) On Ulcers (IIEpi EXKc v); (15) On Fistulae (IIEpi vu piyywv); (16) On Hemorrhoids (IIEpi aipoppot&e); (17) On the Sacred Disease (IIEpi iepi l s yob o- According to the sceptical and somewhat subjective criticism of Ermerins, the whole collection is to be regarded as spurious except Epidemics, books i.
The testimony which it affords to the Ignatian Epistles is so striking that those scholars who regard these letters as spurious are bound to reject the Epistle of Polycarp altogether, or at any rate to look upon it as largely interpolated.
In 1182 the Chandel dynasty was overthrown by Prithwi Raj, the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi, after which the country remained in ruinous anarchy until the close of the 14th century, when the Bundelas, a spurious offshoot of the Garhwa tribe of Rajputs, established themselves on the right bank of the Jumna.
The principles involved in it were lost sight of under the mass of spurious maxims on social order which had slowly grown up and stiffened into system.
According to Diogenes Laertius, who credits him with an undoubtedly spurious letter to Croesus (with whom his connexion was probably legendary), Pittacus was a writer of elegiac poems, from which he quotes five lines.
Zenodotus produced before 274 the first scientific edition of the Iliad and Odyssey, an edition in which spurious lines were marked, at the beginning, with a short horizontal dash called an obelus (-).
This probably facilitated the adoption of the term by the Hellenists of Alexandria, for, when Philo distinguishes the prophet from the spurious diviner by saying that the latter applies his own inferences to omens and the like while the true prophet, rapt in ecstasy, speaks nothing of his own, but simply repeatg what is given to him by a revelation in which his reason has no part (ed.
It has been suggested that Marti is identical with Avellaneda, the writer of a spurious continuation (1614) to Don Quixote; but he died before the first part of Don Quixote was published (1605).
Xv.), which is held by some to be spurious, while others assign it to one or other of the years 287, 290, 296, 308 (so Mason, The Per sec. of Diocl., pp. 275 seq.).
It is not spurious, as some have supposed, nor later than the De Anima, as Zeller thought, but Aristotle in an earlier frame of mind.
In the Leiden MS. of this work, which for long was erroneously ascribed to one Peter Adsiger, is a spurious passage, long believed to mention the variation of the compass.
The Fathers of the Church had repeated times without number that the priesthood stands above even the supreme secular authority; the Bible was full of stories most aptly illustrating this theory; nobody questioned that, within the Church, the pope was the Vicar of Christ, and that, as such, his powers were unlimited; as proof positive could be cited councils and decretals - whether authentic or spurious; at any rate all authorized by long usage and taken as received authorities.
Primary, secondary and spurious bows were formed, and their radii measured; a comparison of these observations exhibited agreement with Airy's analytical values.
20, 21, where the supposed preface of Zaleucus and the collection of laws as a whole is spurious; Suidas, s.v., who makes him a native of Thurii; Cicero, De Legibus, ii.
It was Aristotle himself then who wrote these works, whether he arranged them or not; and if he wrote the incomplete works, then a fortiori he wrote the completed works except those which are proved spurious, and practically consummated the Aristotelian system, which, as Leibnitz said, by its unity of thought and style evinces its own genuineness and individuality.
By these differences we can do something to distinguish between earlier and later philosophical works; and also vindicate as genuine some works, which have been considered spurious because they do not agree in style or in matter with his most mature philosophy.
But the Rhetoric to Alexander was considered spurious by Erasmus, for the inadequate reasons that it has a preface and is not mentioned in the list of Diogenes Laertius, and was assigned by Petrus Victorius, in his preface to the Rhetoric, to Anaximenes.
In virtue of the spurious donation of Constantine, forged at Rome in the time of Charlemagne, which was at first circulated in obscurity, but ended by gaining universal credit, it was believed that the first Christian emperor, in withdrawing to Constantinople, had bestowed on the pope all the provinces of the Western Empire, and that in consequence all sovereignty in the West, even that of the emperor, was derived from pontifical concessions.
The confusion caused by the spurious documents of Puteanus, however, led, even when the legend of St Begga was rejected, to other suggestions for the derivation of the name, e.g.
Thus Eusebius implies (r) a spurious Clementine work containing matter found also in our Homilies at any rate; and (2) its quite recent origin.
Firth (the best edition, rejecting the spurious Squire papers, 1904); Oliver Cromwell, by F.
The best edition (containing also the probably spurious 'EwevroXat) is that of I.
Thus he says that the silver which has been changed into gold by the projection of the red elixir is not rendered resistant to the agents which affect silver but not gold, and Albertus Magnus in his De Mineralibus - the De Alchemia attributed to him is spurious - states that alchemy cannot change species but merely imitates them - for instance, colours a metal white to make it resemble silver or yellow to give it the appearance of gold.
Mahomet's life before he appeared as a prophet and the story of his ancestors are indeed mixed with many fables illustrated by spurious verses.
Chinnock (1893); Voyage of Nearchus with the spurious Periplus, W.
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
Pamphila and the spurious letter from Thales to Pherecydes, ap. Diog.
(3) The word came finally to mean what is false, spurious, bad, heretical.
As spurious; cf.
Hoyt's The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (New York, 1907) is the best presentation of the view generally adopted by competent historians that the alleged Declaration of the 10th of May 1775 is spurious; G.