The state's lumber trade was important until 1890, when the white pine was nearly exhausted, although there were still spruce and hemlock.
Similar preparations are in use wherever the spruce fir abounds.
In the area of the Newer Appalachian Mountains, the eastern Panhandle region has a forest similar to that of the plateau district; but between these two areas of hardwood there is a long belt where spruce and white pine cover the mountain ridges.
In the Mountain Region at the bases of the mountains are oaks, hickories, chestnuts and white poplars: above these are hemlocks, beeches, birches, elms, ashes, maples and limes; and still higher up are spruce, white pine and balsam; and all but a comparatively few of the higher mountains are forest-clad to their summits.
All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
- Norway Spruce (Picea excelsa).
The trees usually grow very close together, the slender trunks rising to a great height bare of branches; but they do not attain the size of the Norway spruce, being seldom taller than 60 or 70 ft., with a diameter of 12 or 2 ft.
The American "essence of spruce," occasionally used in England for making spruce-beer, is obtained by boiling the shoots and buds and concentrating the decoction.
In the woods of Canada it occurs frequently mingled with the black spruce and other trees.
The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.
The large branches droop, like those of the Norway spruce, but the sprays are much lighter and more slender, rendering the tree one of the most elegant of the conifers, especially when young.
The sprays are sometimes used for making spruce-beer and essence of spruce.
Pectinate), may be taken as the type, - a lofty tree, rivalling the Norway spruce in size, with large spreading horizontal boughs curving upward toward the extremities.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
It may here be remarked that the name "European frankincense" is applied to Pinus Taeda, and to the resinous exudation ("Burgundy pitch") of the Norwegian spruce firs (Abies excelsa).
The original varieties of trees still abound, though in less numbers, on lands illadapted to agriculture, and in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, where the state has established forest preserves, and the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner began reforesting in 1901, principally with pine, spruce and larch.
Slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
Other species include - western red cedar, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, whitebark pine, limber pine, alpine larch and occassionally western white pine.
The most valuable trees for lumber are spruce, white pine, hemlock, cedar, white birch, ash, maple and basswood; all excepting pine and hemlock and poplar in addition are ground into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
Some species characteristic of the more northerly regions - for example, the mountain ash, balsam fir, tamarack and black and white spruce - find here their southern or south-western limits.
Except on the summits of the higher mountains New Hampshire was originally an unbroken forest of which the principal trees were the white pine, hemlock, sugar maple, yellow birch, beech, red oak, and white oak in the S., red spruce, balsam, and white birch on the upper mountain slopes, and red spruce, white pine, sugar maple, white spruce and white cedar in the other parts of the N.
Yellow birch, sugar maple and beech have to a considerable extent supplanted spruce, white pine and hemlock, and that wherever forest fires have occurred there is much bird cherry, yellow birch and aspen.
The summits of some of the mountains are too high for trees and above belts of dwarf spruce, balsam and birch they are clothed chiefly with sandworts, diapensia, cassiope, rushes, sedges and lichens.
Berg drove up to his father-in-law's house in his spruce little trap with a pair of sleek roans, exactly like those of a certain prince.
The name has a curious origin, which explains also the particular meaning of the adjective "spruce," neatly dressed, smart in appearance, fine.
The principal merchantable timber of the state is red spruce, and this is found chiefly in the virgin forests which remain in the north, especially in those on the steep mountain slopes between elevations of 1800 ft.
Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.
The spruce bears the smoke of great cities better than most of the Abietineae; but in suburban localities after a certain age it soon loses its healthy appearance, and is apt to be affected with blight (Eriosoma), though not so much as the Scotch fir and most of the pines.
The black spruce (Picea nigra) is a tree of more formal growth than the preceding.
And in more regular whorls than those of the Norway spruce; and, though the lower ones become bent to a horizontal position, they do not droop, so that the tree has a much less elegant appearance.
The spruce-beer of America is generally made from the young shoots of this tree.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
The Douglas spruce (Pseudo-tsuga Douglasii), one of the finest conifers, often rises to a height of 200 ft.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga caibu.ac usw).
In the most prevalent variety of the Norway spruce the wood is white, apt to be very knotty when the tree has grown in an open place, but, as produced in the close northern forests, often of fine and even grain.