Found the most serviceable: - Hydrophytes (submerged aquatic plants) .Plants whose vegetive organs live wholly in water; e.g., most Algae, many mosses, ch as Fontinalis spp., and liverworts, such as Jungermannia spp.; few Pteridophytes, such as Pilularia spp., Isoetes spp.; several wering plants, such as Potamogeton pectinatus, Ceratophyllum p., Hottonia palustris, Utricularia spp., Liltorella lacustris.
Hemi-hydrophytes (swamp plants, marsh plants, &c.).Plants riose vegetative organs are partly submerged and partly aerial; lucheria terrestris, Philonotis fontana, Sca pan-ia undulata, Maria spp., Salvinia ivatans, Azolla spp., Equisetum limosum, Typha rgustifolia, Phragmites communis, Scirpus lacustris, Nymphaea tea, Oenanthe fistulosa, Bidens cernua.
Halo phytes.Plants which grow in very saline soils; e.g., Tr-iglochin iritimum, Salicornia spp., Zygophyllum cornutum, Aster Tnhum, Artemisia maritima.
Aquatic plants with floating leaves: Lemna spp., Hydrochcrris Morsus-ranae, Castalia (Nympliaea) alba.
Marsh plants: Alopecurus geniculatus, Carex dis~icha, Juncus spp., Caitha palustris, Nasturtium palustre.
Heterophylly is rather common among aquatic plants, and is well seen in several aquatic species of Ranunculus, many species of Potamogelon, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Scir pus lacusiris, Castalia (Nymphaea) alba, Hippuris vulgaris, Callitriche spp., Sium latifolium.
Utricularia spp., which are locally abundant in peaty waters, are insectivorous.
Some such species are Blechnum boreale, Aira flexuosa, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium, Myrlillus, Rubus, Chamaemorus, Empetrum nigrum, Drosera spp. Some, at least, of these species possess mycorhiza in their roots, and are perhaps unable to live in soils where such organisms are absent.
Among other notable Lepidopterous pests are the " surface larvae " or cutworms (Agrotis spp.), the caterpillars of various Noctuae; the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella), which causes the maggot in apples, has now become a universal pest, having spread from Europe to America and to most of the British Colonies.
Other caterpillars, "budworms" (Heliothis, spp.), attack the buds or burrow into the seed-pods.