Or the primary hypha y first swell at its apex, and put forth a series of short peg-like branches (sterigmata) from the increased surface thus provided, each of which develops a similar basipetal chain of conidia (Aspergillus), and various combinations of these processes result in the development of numerous varieties of exquisitely branched sporophores of this type (Botrytis, Botryosporium, Verticillium, &c.).
Compound sporophores arise when any of the branched or unbranched types of spore-bearing hyphae described above ascend into the air in consort, and are more or less crowded into definite layers, cushions, columns or other complex masses.
The same laws apply to the individual hyphae and their branches as to simple sporophores, and as long as the conidia, sporangia, gametes, &c., are borne on their external surfaces, it is quite consistent to speak of these as compound sporophores, &c., in the sense described, however complex they may become.
The recent observations and exceedingly ingenious experiments of Falck have shown that the sporophores of the Basidiomycetesespecially the large sporophores of such forms as Boletus, Polyporus- contain quantities of reserve combustible material which are burnt up by the active metabolism occurring when the fruit-body is ripe.
Exobasidium) the basidia are borne directly on the ordinary mycelium, but in the majority of cases the basidia are found developed in layers (hymenium) on special sporophores of characteristic form in the various groups.
In these sporophores (such as the well-known toadstools and mushrooms where the ordinary vegetative mycelium is underground) we have structures specially developed for bearing the basidiospores and protecting them from rain, &c., and for the distribution of the spores - see earlier part of article on distribution of spores (figs.
The underground mycelium in many cases spreads wider and wider each year, often in a circular manner, and the sporophores springing from it appear in the form of a ring - the so called fairy rings.
Sterile cells; c, cystidium, closed sporophores or with operculum o.
Spores and Sporophores: Zopf, Die Pilze; also the works of von Tafel and Brefeld.