Such applications at the momelit when spores are germinating on the leaves, e.g.
The danger from this source is remote, as the microbe does not form spores within the animal body.
The inner coat enveloping the spores is supported, like a ball, either with or without a stalk on the upper face of the star.
Milk so treated will keep at the ordinary room temperature, as the spores of the B.
No spores make their appearance, the yeast in question may be regarded as S.
When a mushroom is perfectly ripe and the gills are brown-black in colour, they throw down a thick dusty deposit of fine brown-black or purple-black spores; it is essential to note the colour.
A "map" of the spores should be taken by separating a pileus and placing it flat on a piece of thin paper for a few hours when the spores will fall and leave a nature print of the arrangement of the gills which may be fixed by gumming the other side of the paper.
The lactic acid bacillus, always present in unboiled milk (to which the souring of milk is due), is easily destroyed by heat; but the bacillus mesentericus, often found in it, forms spores, which are not destroyed by ordinary boiling, and germinate when the milk is kept at a moderately warm temperature, producing a brisk fermentation whereby a large volume of gas is liberated.
In most cases four spores are formed within the cell by free formation.
Schwann in 1839) was studied by Hansen, who found that each species only developed spores between certain definite temperatures.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
The spores differ from those of ferns in their outer coat (exospore) being split up into four club-shaped hygroscopic threads (elaters) which are curled when moist, but become straightened when dry.
The seeds of the cryptogams or flowerless plants are not true seeds and are properly designated "spores."
The simpler Fungi, like the simpler Green Algae, consist of single cells or simple or branched cell-threads, but among the higher kinds a massive body is often formed, particuTissue t~Jf larly in con nexion with the formation of spores, and, er~n,~,onthiS may exhibit considerable tissue-differentiation.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
The spores of Rusts, Erysipheae an d other Fungi may be conveyed from plant to plant by snails; those of tree-killing polyporei, &c., by mice, rabbits, rats, &c., which rub their fur against the hymenophores.
Bees carry the spores of Scierotinia as they do the pollen of the bilberries, and flies convey the conidia of ergot from grain to grain.
Worms bring spores to the surface of soil, ducks and other birds convey them on their muddy feet.
In the Thallophytes the cytoplasm may be segmented by constriction, due to the in-growth of a new cell wall from the old one, as in Spirogyra and Cladophora, or by the formation of cleavage furrows in which the new cell-wall is secreted, as occurs in the formation of the spores in many Algae and Fungi.
In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.
Breaking up of the cellcontents into minute biflagellate swarm-spores, which escape, and whose history is not further known.
"He saw that they increased in size, divided, and became full of filiform spores, then ruptured and poured out their multitudinous progeny into the bodycavity of their insect host.
Gymnosporangium sabinae, one of the rusts (Uredineae) passes one stage of its life-history on living pear leaves, forming large raised spots or patches which are at first yellow but soon become red and are visible on both faces; on the lower face of each patch is a group of cluster-cups or aecidia containing spores which escape when ripe.
This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.
The gelatinous, generally reddish-brown masses of spores - the teleutospores - formed on the juniper in the spring germinate and form minute spores - sporidia - which give rise to the aecidium stage on the pear.
The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.
Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.
AaK6s, a bag), a botanical term for the membranous sacs containing the reproductive spores in certain lichens and fungi.
The presence of the volva, and the clear white gills and spores, distinguish this genus from all other agarics.
Portion of the mycelium of the fungus bearing spores (conidia), s, on erect branches, X250.
Ascus from perithecium containing six spores, X30o.
These are minute, oval, colourless spores, which serve to spread the disease over the vineyard and from place to place.
Cercospora Vitis (Cladosporium viticolum), which has club-shaped spores of a green-brown colour, also attacks the leaves; but, unless the season is extremely unfavourable, it does little harm.
The latter is the more serious, as in addition to the actual damage done by the beetle the holes afford entrance to fungus spores, &c. Under the name " horn worms " are included the larvae or caterpillars of species of Protoparce.
The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.
In cannel coals the prevailing constituents are the spores of cryptogamic plants, algae being rare or in many cases absent.
In addition, the great majority have also another method of reproduction, for increasing the number of the parasites in any individual host; this is distinguished as multiplicative or endogenous reproduction, from the propagative or exogenous method (by means of the resistant spores), which serves for the infection of fresh hosts and secures the dissemination and survival of the species.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
This prevents infection from outside and also destroys any spores or fungus mycelium that may have been packed away along with the bulbs.
Mesentericus do not develop below 15° C.; but if it be introduced into the alimentary canal of a child the spores will rapidly multiply, and in such cases large quantities of gas, giving rise to flatulency, will be formed, and possibly also poisonous decomposition products of albuminoid matter.
The spores germinate on a damp surface and enter the cortex through small cracks or wounds in the protecting layer.
The algal cells are never known to form spores while part of the lichen-thallus, but they may do so when separated from it and growing free.
Special wound-cork is also often formed round accidental injuries so as to prevent the rotting of the tissues by the soaking in of rain and the entrance of fungal spores and bacteria.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.