3, H) is extremely thread-like, greatly resembling, in fact, a Spirochaete; on the other hand, both male and female individuals have the form of a very wide spindle.
Trypanomorpha (Trypanosoma) noctuae and Trypanosoma (Spirochaete) ziemanni.
Ziemanni) described may have been really a true Spirochaete, i.e.
In short, it is quite possible Schaudinn did not sufficiently distinguish between the life-cycles of four distinct parasites of the Little Owl: a Trypanosome, a Spirochaete, a Halteridium and a Leucocytozoon; though, on the other hand, this is by no means proved.
In Schaudin's great memoir he regarded Trypanosoma ziemanni as possessing, in certain phases, the actual characteristics of a Spirochaete as then known; and, further, he was inclined to think that other Spirochaetae (e.g.
Hoffmann (52) from essential syphilitic lesions, and now known as Treponeina (Spirochaete) pallida, Schaud.
Siedlecki, " Contribution a l'etude de la structure et du cycle evolutif de Spirochaete pallida, Schaud.," Bull.
Schaudinn, " Generationsand Wirthswechsel bei Trypanosoma and Spirochaete," Arb.
Gesundheitsamte (1904), 20, p. 387, figs.; (51) idem, " Zur Kenntniss der Spirochaete pallida," Deutsch.
If the sinuosity is slight we have the Vibrio form; if pronounced, and the spiral winding well marked, the forms are known as Spirillum, Spirochaete, &c. These and similar terms have been applied partly to individual cells, but more often to filaments consisting of several cells; and much confusion has arisen form the difficulty of defining the terms themselves.
Divisions perpendicular to the long axis: - Vibrio (Muller-Ldffler), commashaped, motile, monotrichous; Spirillum (Ehrenb.), more strongly curved in open spirals, motile, lopho trichous; Spirochaete (Ehrenb.), spirally coiled in numerous close turns, motile, but apparently owing to flexile movements, as no cilia are found.
It was first recorded as poisonous by Livingstone and is now known to be the carrier of the Spirochaete of relapsing fever in man, known as tick fever.
A similar bad repute attaches to other species in different parts of South America; while Argas miniatus has been proved to be the carrier of the Spirochaete causing spirillosis in fowls in Rio Janeiro, and also in New South Wales whither it has been introduced with imported poultry.
Of the discoveries of new organisms the most important is that of the Spirochaete pallida in syphilis by Schaudinn and Hoffmann in 1905; and although proof that it is the cause of the disease is not absolute, the facts that have been established constitute very strong presumptive evidence in favour of this being the case.