The anonymous objections are very much the statement of common-sense against philosophy; those of Caterus criticize the Cartesian argument from the traditional theology of the church; those of Arnauld are an appreciative inquiry into the bearings and consequences of the meditations for religion and morality; while those of Hobbes (q.v.) and Gassendi - both somewhat senior to Descartes and with a dogmatic system of their own already formed - are a keen assault upon the spiritualism of the Cartesian position from a generally " sensational " standpoint.
In such a state of despair and destitution there is no hope for spiritualism, save in God; and Clauberg, Geulincx and Malebranche all take refuge under the shadow of his wings to escape the tyranny of extended matter.
SPIRITUALISM, a term used by philosophical writers to denote the opposite of materialism, and also used in a narrower sense to describe the belief that the spiritual world manifests itself by producing in the physical world effects inexplicable by the known laws of nature.
To this movement, which has been called "modern spiritualism," the present article is confined.
It was, however, at Rochester, where Kate and her sister Margaret (1836-1893)(1836-1893) went to live with a married sister (Mrs Fish) that modern spiritualism assumed its present form, and that communication was, as it was believed, established with lost relatives and deceased eminent men.
The first two causes have attracted many inquirers; but it is the last that has chiefly given to modern spiritualism its religious aspect.
There seems to have been little practical interest in spiritualism in England till 1852, when its first development took the form of a mania for table-turning.
It was at Keighley in Yorkshire - where also the first English periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was published in 1855 and onwards - that spiritualism as a religious movement first made any mark in England; but this movement, though it spread rather widely, cannot be said to have attained at any time very vigorous proportions.
In the present article it is impossible to give an exhaustive catalogue of the phenomena and modes of communication of modern spiritualism.'
To the first belong what may be called the physical phenomena (q.v.) of spiritualism - those, namely, which, if correctly observed and due neither to conscious or unconscious trickery nor to hallucination or illusion on the part of the observers, exhibit a force acting in the physical world hitherto unknown to science.
What is usually called spiritualism) "is supported," says Serjeant Cox.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
(1) Almost every medium who has been prominently before the public has at some time or other been detected in fraud, or what cannot be distinguished from fraud except on some violently improbable hypothesis; and (2) although it is easy to devise experiments of various kinds which, by eliminating the necessity for continuous observation on the part of the investigator, would place certain phenomena above the suspicion of conjur 1 See, e.g., Report on Spiritualism of the Committee of the London Dialectical Society (1871), pp. 207, 367-369.
The interest in spiritualism, apart from scientific curiosity and mere love of the marvellous, is partly due to the belief that trustworthy information and advice about mundane matters can be obtained through mediums - to the same impulse in fact which has in all ages attracted inquirers to fortune-tellers.
1871; republished with other papers by Crookes, under the title of Researches on the Phenomena of Spiritualism (1874-1876).
Spiritualism has been accused of a tendency to produce insanity, but spiritualistic sittings carried on by private persons do not appear to he harmful provided those who find in themselves "mediumistic" powers do not lose their self-control and exercise these powers when they do not desire to do so, or against their better judgment.
Public sittings are apt to be means of obtaining money by false pretences, and the great scandal of spiritualism is undoubtedly the encouragement it gives to the immoral trade of fraudulent mediumship.
Podmore, Modern Spiritualism (2 vols., London, 1902), and The Newer Spiritualism (1910); F.
Capron, Modern Spiritualism, its Facts, &c. (Boston, 1855), for the early history of the movement in America; J.
Dexter, Spiritualism (New York, 1853-1855); R.
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
(Oxon.)], Spirit Identity and Spirit Teaching; Zbllner, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (the part relating to spiritualism has been translated into English under the title Transcendental Physics by C. C. Massey); Report of the Seybert Commission on Spiritualism (Philadelphia, 1887); Professor Th.
A succinct account of typical frauds of spiritualism is contained in D.
Home's Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism (2nd ed., 1877-1878), and also in Hereward Carrington's The Physical Phenomena of Spiritualism, Fraudulent and Genuine (Boston 1907).
Stripped of its definitely miraculous character, the doctrine of the inner light may be regarded as the familiar mystical protest against formalism, literalism, and scripture-worship. Swedenborg, though selected by Emerson in his Representative Men as the typical mystic, belongs rather to the history of spiritualism than to that of mysticism as understood in this article.
His father, a Lutheran clergyman at Leonberg, dabbled in spiritualism, and was deprived of his living in 1771.
In fact the ready acceptance of spiritualism testifies to the force with which the primitive animistic way of looking at things appealed to the white races in the middle of the last century.
In modern spiritualism the familiar is represented by the "guide," corresponding to which we have the theosophical "guru."
It seems to have been common among the Jews, and the case of the witch of Endor is narrated in a way to suggest something beyond fraud; in the book of magic which bears the name of Dr Faustus may be found many of the formulae for raising demons; in England may be mentioned especially Dr Dee as one of the most famous of those who claimed before the days of modern spiritualism to have intercourse with the unseen world and to summon demons at his will.
A vivid new light is shed by him upon certain problems, such for instance as those of the imagination or intuition, the source of Art and the theme of the Aesthetic, upon pure will, the source of Economic of Rights and of Politics, treated by Economic. The more precise determination and configuration of the categories and their mode of acting, by means of which is negated and solved the concept of an external reality and of nature placed outside the spirit and opposed to it, led Croce to an absolute spiritualism, widely different from the pan-logicism of Hegel and his school, which only seemed to solve the dualism of spirit and nature and really opened the door to the notion of a transcendental God, as became clear in the development of Hegel's theory at the hands of the right wing of his school.
Chevreul was a determined enemy of charlatanism in every form, and a complete sceptic as to the "scientific" psychical research or spiritualism which had begun in his time (see his De la baguette divinatoire, et des tables tournantes, 1864).
But the appearance of Home's Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism (1877) had a prejudicial effect upon the propaganda, and Heliona P. Blavatsky (as she began to style herself) retired to India.
But the most noticeable passage in Le Nouveau spiritualisme (1884) is its contrast between the old and the new; where he says that the old spiritualism opposed spirit to matter, God to Nature, the new spiritualism places matter in spirit, Nature in God (p. 377).
A peculiarity of his thought was the realistic nature of his spiritualism: his abstractions are all real existences; his spiritual entities are real and corporeal; his truth is actual being.
When the movement of modern spiritualism first reached Europe from America in the winter of 1852-3, the most popular method of consulting the "spirits" was for several persons to sit round a table, with their hands resting on it, and wait for the table to move.
1853 - article by Carpenter on Spiritualism, &c.; Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863); Ch.
Podmore, Modern Spiritualism (London, 1902), ii.
He at once began to take an independent part in the movements then agitating NewEngland, which between 1830 and 1850 was stirred by discussions pertaining to Unitarianism, transcendentalism, spiritualism, abolitionism and various schemes for communistic living.
Turning to his other writings, Wallace published Miracles and Modern Spiritualism in 1881.
This view, however, always has been strongly opposed by those who accept on theological grounds a spiritualistic doctrine, or what is, perhaps, more usual, a theory which combines spiritualism and materialism in the doctrine of a composite nature in man, animal as to the body and in some measure as to the mind, spiritual as to the soul.