But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.
The town, with its numerous spires and remains of medieval fortifications, is very picturesque.
The first choir was burned down in 1213, but was rebuilt in 1242 at the same time as the transept, and is a superb specimen of pointed Gothic. There are five towers with spires, which give the outside an impressive appearance, and much has been done towards removing the squalid buildings that formerly concealed the cathedral.
Presented it to the bishopric of Spires; in the 13th century it obtained civic privileges and passed to the counts of Sponheim; in 1416 it became part of the Palatinate.
These spires were like great spear-points, and if they tumbled upon one of them they were likely to suffer serious injury.
Rudolph died at Spires on the 15th of July 1291 and was buried in the cathedral of that city.
Physician, scholar and adventurer, was born at Spires in 1635.
In the design of spires Wren showed much taste and wonderful power of invention.
The three Gothic Protestant churches, the Marienkirche, the Nikolaikirche and the Jakobikirche, and the town-hall (Rathaus) are the principal edifices, and these with their lofty spires are very picturesque.
The original Latin text was printed at Cologne (1473), Spires (1483), Paris (1500), Oxford (1598 and 1599), &c. It was first translated into English by J.
Chartres is built on the left bank of the Eure, on a hill crowned by its famous cathedral, the spires of which are a landmark in the surrounding country.
The massive and richly decorated square tower in the centre of the west façade, which for centuries terminated in a temporary spire, was completed in 1890, according to the original plans, by the addition of an octagonal storey and a tall open spire (528 ft.), the loftiest ecclesiastical erection in the world, outstripping the twin spires of Cologne cathedral by 21 ft.
This Franconia was in 843 included in the kingdom of Louis the German, and was then increased by the addition of the territories of Mainz, Spires and Worms, on the right bank of the river.
His brother, Johann Friedrich Hugo von Dalberg (1752-1812), canon of Trier, Worms and Spires, had some vogue as a composer and writer on musical subjects.
The province is well served by railway communication and, for purposes of administration, is divided into the following 16 districts: Bergzabern, Diirkheim, Frankenthal, Germersheim, Homburg, Kaiserslautern, Kirchheimbolanden, Kusel, Landau, Ludwigshafen, Neustadt, Pirmasens, Rockenhausen, St Ingbert, Spires and Zweibriicken.
Spires (Speyer) is the seat of government, and the chief industrial centres are Ludwigshafen on the Rhine, which is the principal river port, Landau, and Neustadt, the seat of the wine trade.
Becker, Die Pfalz and die Pfiilzer (Leipzig, 1857); Mehlis, Fahrten durch die Pfalz (Augsburg, 1877); Kranz, Handbuch der Pfalz (Spires, 1902); Hensen, Pfalzfiihrer (Neustadt, 1905); and Nailer, Die Burgen der rheinischen Pfalz (Strassburg, 1887).
Above Spires, however, the river craft are comparatively small, but lower down vessels of 500 and 600 tons burden find no difficulty in plying.
The principal church buildings are the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic), a fine specimen of Gothic architecture, built of brownstone, with spires 210 ft.
It has four Evangelical churches, two with curiously leaning, lead-covered spires; an old town-hall; a gymnasium; and several philanthropic and religious institutions.
Of its three Evangelical churches the most prominent is the fine Gothic church of St John, with twin spires, which was restored in 1886.
There is a story - based, however, on no good evidence - that Walaf rid devoted himself so closely to letters as to neglect the duties of his office, owing to which he was expelled from his house; but, from his own verses, it seems that the real cause of his flight to Spires was that, notwithstanding the fact that he had been tutor to Charles the Bald, he espoused the side of his elder brother Lothair on the death cf Louis the Pious in 840.
After the Imperial Diet of Spires in 1526 had decreed that all states of the empire should observe the Edict of Worms (1521), banning Luther and his adherents, in such a manner that they should not be afraid to answer it before God and the emperor, the reform movement had received such an access of strength that the Catholic party felt itself menaced in earnest, and in 1529 again passed a resolution at Spires, deigned not merely to preclude any further expansion of the Reformation, but even to prevent it from maintaining the ground already won.
The feud which raged round the doctrine of the Lord's Supper had already broken out before the first diet of Spires, and had aroused great and immediate excitement.
True, the impression conveyed by the attitude of the Catholic party at the second Diet of Spires had served to awaken the feeling for solidarity among the Evangelicals there assembled; and on the 22nd of April they had even secured the basis for a provisional alliance in the shape of a formula drawn up by Bucer and dealing with the Lord's Supper.
All over the town are scattered beautiful Buddhist temples, which with their coloured tile roofs and gilded spires give it a peculiar and notable appearance.
The beautiful spires, which had become unsafe, were rebuilt in 1890-1895.
This dignity was soon lost, as in 1317 it passed to the bishopric of Spires and in 1331 to the Palatinate, recovering its former position in 1511.
Clement sent one of his ablest Italian diplomatists, Campeggio, to negotiate with the diet which met at Spires in 1524.
The diet renewed the demand for a general council to meet in a German town to settle the affairs of the Church in Germany, and even proposed the convocation of a national council at Spires in November, to effect a temporary adjustment.
These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others.
There are an Evangelical and four Roman Catholic churches, among the latter that of St Peter, the burial-place of the bishops of Spires, whose princely residence (now used as a prison) lies in the vicinity.
It has an interesting and beautiful church (the Marien Kirche), with four spires (of which that on the transept is curiously crooked), built in the 13th century, and restored in 1876-1879; also several other ancient buildings, notably the town-hall, the Fiirstenhof (now administrative offices), and the Hexenthurm.
The king also worked with great zeal for the care of monuments, and the cathedrals of Spires and Cologne enjoyed his special care.
On the south-western side of this square, which contains a monument to the elector Frederick Charles Joseph of Mainz (1719-1802), is the Domberg, an eminence on which stand, side by side, the cathedral and the great church of St Severus with its three spires (14th century).
The facade, which is flanked by two square towers without spires, has three portals decorated with a profusion of statuary, the central portal having a remarkable statue of Christ of the 13th century; they are surmounted by two galleries, the upper one containing twenty-two statues of the kings of Judah in its arcades, and by a fine rose-window.
One of the most attractive churches is that of Nossa Senhora da Penha, surmounted by two slender spires and a dome.
After the first Diet of Spires (1526), where a precarious peace was patched up for the reformed faith, Melanchthon was deputed as one of twenty-eight commissioners to visit the reformed states and regulate the constitution of churches, he having just published a famous treatise called the Libellus visitatorius, a directory for the use of the commissioners.
It has a handsome church with twin spires, and training colleges for schoolmasters and theological candidates.
To make peace with Denmark at the diet of Spires, the 23rd of May 1 544 The foreign policy of Christian's later days was regulated by the peace of Spires.
When in 825 his son Louis, afterwards called the German, was entrusted with the government of Bavaria and from this centre gradually ~ extended his authority over the Carolingian dominions east of the Rhine, a step was taken in the process by which East Francia, or Germany, was becoming a unit distinguishable from other portions of the Empire; a process which was carried further by the treaty of Verclun in August 843, when, after a struggle between Louis the German and his brothers for their fathers inheritance, an arrangement was made by which Louis obtained the bulk of the lands east of the Rhine together with the districts around Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.
Hence when Henry returned to Germany in 1078 Worms, Spires and many other places opened their gates to him and contributed freely to his cause; nevertheless his troops were beaten in three encounters and Pope Gregory thundered anew against him in March 1080.