Apart from other evidence, the use of B with the value of v, of H as well as I with the value of i, of 43 with the value of f, and X with that of the Scotch ch, would be proof that the alphabet was not borrowed till long after the Greek classical period, for not till later did 0, 4,, x become spirants and n become identified with L.
Voiceless spirants: if or ph (= Eng.
Voiced spirants: Eng.
The sounds of t and d are more dental than in English, though they vary; the voiced spirants are very soft; the voiceless nasals are aspirated, thus is similar to Eng.
K, t, p before a consonant are changed into the spirants kh Sanskrit.
Baluch, the language of Baluchistan, also very closely akin to New Persian, but especially distinguished from it in that all the old spirants arc changed into explosives, e.g.
The study of the spirants, c, 1, 1; g, j is made a very delicate one by the circumstance that the interdental pronunciation of c, 1 on the one hand, and the guttural pronunciation of g, j on the other, are of comparatively recent date, and convey no notion of the value of these letters before the 17th century.
It is admitted, not without reason, that the spirants c, 1, which at present represent but one interdental sound (a lisped s, or a sound between s and Eng.
Th in thing), had down till about the middle of the 16th century the voiceless sound Is and the voiced sounddz respectively, and that in like manner tbe palatal spirants g, j, x, before assuming the uniform pronunciation of the guttural spirant (-=Germ.
The substitution of these interdental and guttural sounds for the surd and sonant spirants respectively did certainly not take place simultaneously, but the vacillations of the old orthography, and afterwards the decision of the Spanish Academy, which suppressed x (= I; x was retained for cs) and allows only c and g before e and i, I and j before a, a, a, make it impossible for us to follow, with the help of the written texts, the course of the transformation.