She was celebrated as a spinner of wool, and was supposed to exercise influence over Roman brides.
The lower the grade the more elaborate and expensive is the machinery required to clean it, and consequently a spinner is willing to pay a certain amount extra for high grade cotton in order to save expenditure on preparatory machinery.
He started work at the age of seven in a ropeworks, attending the wheel of a rope-spinner for ten hours a day, and on Saturday afternoons and Sunday mornings toiled in a barber's shop. He afterwards became a gasworker, and in 1889 he helped to found the National Union of Gas Workers and General Labourers, becoming its general secretary.
The considerations which determine the " points on or off " charged to the spinner may be taken roughly as three: - i.
The silk-waste spinner receives his silk in quite a different form: merely the raw material, packed in bales of various sizes and weights, the contents being a much-tangled mass of all lengths of fibre mixed with much foreign matter, such as ends of straws, twigs, leaves, worms and chrysalis.
The spinner who persists in over-weighting his yarn finds it difficult to obtain "repeat" orders.
A remarkable point in the Lancashire yarn trade is the looseness of the contracts between spinner and manufacturer.
This expriest, this disillusioned Jacobin and skilful spinner of cobweb constitutions, enjoyed for a time the chief reputation in France.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
The evolution of the distinct business of cotton broking is readily comprehensible when we remind ourselves that the requirements, as regards raw material, of all spinners are much alike generally, and that no spinner could afford to pay an expert to devote himself entirely to purchasing cotton for his mill.
To-day a spinner who is asked to quote for deliveries of yarn for, say, the next six months, may obtain from a broker quotations for deliveries of the cotton that he needs, in quantities as he needs it, for the next six months, and upon these quotations he may base his own for yarn.
If a spinner is pressed by a shipper to make quotations with refusal for two or three days to give time for business to be settled by cable, it is evidently not impossible for the spinner to shift the risk involved by getting in turn from his broker refusal quotations for cotton.
When the spinner has informed the dealer exactly what quality of cotton he needs, the dealer quotes so many " points on or off " the " future " quotations prevailing in Liverpool at the time of the purchase, which refer to Upland cotton of " middling grade," of " no staple " and of the worst growth.
These are of importance to the spinner owing to the necessity of his cleaning machinery being adapted to the condition of the cotton.
Between loss and delay the spinner found an obvious alternative in damping the yarn artificially.
Then, according as the spinner wants immediate delivery or delivery in some future month, he pays the price of current " futures," or of " futures " of the month in which he requires delivery, plus or minus the " points on or off " previously fixed.
Yarn is sold upon various terms, but a regular custom in the home trade is for the spinner to allow 4% discount, for payment in 14 days, of which 21 goes to the buyer, who is commonly a manufacturer, and 12 to the agent for sale and guaranteeing the account.
The object of the spinner at this point is to straighten out the tangles and lumps, and to lay the fibres parallel: the first machine to assist in this process being known as an opening machine, and the second as a filling engine.