The number rapidly increased, and in 1851 there were 66 cotton mills with 860,000 throstle spindles at work.
The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam or electric power.
The importance of the original spinners' representation on the association is shown by the fact that they worked over 14,000,000 spindles: in December 1905 the spindles represented by members had risen to nearly 20,000,000.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
There were 155 of these factories in 1895, but in 1905 only 108 were in operation, with 715,000 spindles, and about 37, 00 o operatives.
The spindles to which the wheels are attached revolve in a lathe worked by a foot treadle.
Cotton was first imported to Providence from Spain in 1785; a company to carry on cotton-spinning, formed at Providence in 1786, established there in the following year a factory containing a spinning jenny of 28 spindles (the first machine of the kind to be used in the United States), and also a carding machine and a spinning frame with which was manufactured a kind of jean having a linen warp and a cotton filling.
2 It must be noted, however, that the first successful construction of cards, drawing and roving, and of spindles, on the Arkwright principle was by S.
The commonwealth contributes to the support of textile schools in cities in which 450,000 spindles are in operation.
(Thousands of tons.) The number of cotton spindles in Austria was: in 1910, 4,643,300' in 1911, 4,563,700; in 1912, 4,797,9 00; in 1913, 4,9 0 9,45 8.
The cotton factories of 1905 were equipped with 22,021 looms having 678,058 spindles, and with 38 stamping machines, employed 30,162 operatives, and turned out 13,731,638 pieces of cloth.
The spinning or throwing which follows is done on a frame with upright spindles and flyers, the yarn as it is twisted being drawn forward through guides and wound on revolving bobbins with a reciprocating motion.
A great amount of doubled and trebled yarn is now sold, though it does not appear that recent expansions have added much to doubling spindles, and considerable developments continue in the use of dyed and mercerized yarns.
" spindles," above the tombs near Amrit, have peculiarities of their own; some of them are adorned with lions at the base and with roofs of pyramidal shape.
In 1905 there Cotton were about 9,000,000 spindles in Germany.
In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in 1905, 276,000 fine spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms in operation, and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of an estimated value of over 2,000,000.
Yet even in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop was laid in his grave with his crozier and comb; the priest with his chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to the urns of heathen times) are found in the churches of France and Denmark.
It is utilized in the spindles of machinetools, in the balls and rollers for high-speed bearings, slides, pivots and such like.
At the same time the total number of spindles employed in working up the world's raw cotton was 116 millions, of which 48 millions were in the United Kingdom, 24 millions in the United States, and a little over 5 millions in India.
The Bombay Presidency possessed 70% of the mills and much the same percentage of spindles and looms. The industry dates from 1851, when the first mill was started.
Curtis (1813-1889), known by her pen name, " Mina Myrtle," and by Harriet Farley (1817-1907), who became manager and proprietor, and published selections from the Offering under the titles Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius (1847) and Mind among the Spindles (1849), with an introduction by Charles Knight.
This ingenious arrangement, whereby the reels can be changed in about three minutes, obviates the loss of time previously incurred by the press being kept standing while the empty spindles were removed and replaced with four full reels.
The expansion of the Indian power trade may be gathered from the following particulars of the number of looms and spindles from 1892 to 1906.
In one or two cases the number of spindles is obtained approximately by reckoning twenty spindles per loom, which is about the average for the Indian mills.
Spinning and weaving are carried on among the people as a household occupation, and fabrics are made of an exceptionally substantial character.It is not uncommon to see the natives busily twirling their rude spindles as they follow their troops of pack animals over rough mountain roads, and the yarn produced is woven into cloth in their own houses on rough Spanish looms of colonial patterns.
In 1850 the number of spindles was 396,338 and of power looms 58; in 1905 the corresponding figures were 826,528 and 34,498.
The number of establishments in 1900 was 80, and in 1905, 127; the number of producing spindles in 1900 was 1,431,349, and in 1905, 2,864,092; and the number of looms in 1900, 42,663, and in 1905, 72,702.
The manufacture of cotton goods was the chief sub-division of the industry, employing 153,375 spindles, 3008 looms and 1787 knitting machines.
The spindles hummed steadily and ceaselessly on all sides.
"Connaissez-vous le Proverbe: * 'Jerome, Jerome, do not roam, but turn spindles at home!'?" said Shinshin, puckering his brows and smiling.
The fairy women who come to the births of children and foretell their fortunes (Fata, Moerae, ancient Egyptian Hathors, Fees, Dominae Fatales), with their spindles, are refractions of the human "spae-women" (in the Scots term) who attend at birth and derive omens of the child's future from various signs.